The rector of Baky State University Abel Maharramov’s Welcome speech
Much respected Forum participants!
First of all I greet you in the historical hall of Baku State University, which is leading scientific educational and cultural centre of independent republic of Azerbaijan, and I say welcome to everybody on behalf of the leadership, academic staff, and many thousands of student body.
As you know Baky International Humanitarian Forum was held on 10-11 October, 2011 under the chairmanship of the President of Republic of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev and the President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev. Attention to the reality of the global world and the estimation of humanitarian aspects of hopes and challenges of XXI century was intended, and the main objects of the forum are based on creating expending discussions on the international scale about current and upcoming actual humanitarian problems by the representers of the environmental, humanitarian and economical sciences in the forum. For these purposes there will be roundtables within the forum on 7 directions.
The establishment of the roundtable dealing with the issue of “Modern technologies that changed the world” has been commissioned to Baky State University. Corresponding to the form program, today we are going to define the impacts of modern technologies expressly information, communication and innovation that have been developing with high rapidity in the end of the xxI century and in the first decade of the XXI century completely in the world, and discuss the advantages, disadvantages, hopes for future and perspectives.
Much respected colleagues and friends!
This is clear that the XXI century is characterised by the progressive development of science, modern technologies, scientific-practical innovations, development of information and communication technologies, and will go down in history as an information, science and education age in broad sense. The development of science and education is the main purpose that provides the formation of human society on worldwide scale, and current generation take an active part in the formation of this society, so mankind should be cognisant of their responsibility and respectively we have to carry out our duties conscientiously and honourably.
From the late xxI century to nowadays information and communication technologies have became one of the main factors that have influences on the development of society and have important impacts on economical, social, educational, cultural and governmental spheres and directly affect the population.
The developed and too many developing countries make profit from the advantages of information and communication technologies, and there is no doubt that the direction to information society is the way to future of mankind.
The main factors in the human progress are science, education and up-to-date knowledge. Using innovative technologies for transmission of information and knowledge, including information-communication technologies is regarded as the main terms of development in the global level. Consecutive and systematic measures for transferring economic potential onto human capital are carried out. From this point of view Baku Forum and today’s round table is of great importance.
I wish success to the work of round table, and I invite the moderator, the rector of MSU named after M.V.Lomonosov, academician V.A.Sadovnichy to continue.
A.L. Semyonov, Rector of Moscow Institute of Open Education
The role of mathematics in the modern world
Role of mathematics to every individual in the world today is primarily defined by the two main factors:
Less directly and significantly mathematics affects the lives of all people, giving the other sciences and engineering models of reality and research tools of the models.
Mathematics and information technology
XX century is the century emergence and spread of computers. The computer can be called a mathematical machine (so it was called and sometimes in our country is more correct than “computer”). The computer created mathematical methods, primarily as a mathematical device used by mathematically designed and mathematically described activities of processing information. It can be said that the machines do what can be “mathematized”. It is obvious that the design of such machines uses other sciences, especially physics, chemistry (using in its turn mathematical methods), but the essence of the work carried out by these machines to humans – is mathematical.
The emergence of computer mathematics before computers
It is amazing that the theory of operation of such machines and many important elements of their use, for example, programming languages have been developed by mathematicians until the appropriate electronic embodied in silicon technology. This theory was created as a tool for analysis of human activities, exercising handling information in accordance with a formal rule. Mathematical proceedings of the pre-computer era “virtually” are no-waste here. For example, in the late 1940 ‘sa Leningrad mathematician, member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Andrey Markov built his theory of algorithms, and in 1970 inside the computer world was invented structured programming and inductive proofs of correctness of programs they exactly mimic the developments of Markov.
Classic pure and applied mathematics
Classic pure mathematics has worked with exact formulas. Only at the very end, when the equation is solved in general terms, actual data and calculations wereused. Classical applied mathematics also has to deal with the most advanced analytical solutions and only then applied the methods of approximate calculations. Ultimately, however, we have in any case not deal with the real numbers, that is, the infinite decimal fractions, but with their discrete approximation.
New mathematics created for information technology
The emergence of mathematical machines did not change the situation radically. We are still in the world of the same mathematical models. However, in many areas of mathematics, we have a radical breakthrough – for example, from the point of view of classical mathematics, it is impossible to imagine the task of image processing robot or recognition of oral communication. Mathematics has developed a wide range of new models and methods in applied mathematics, initially working with discrete objects. In doing so, we found important for practices fundamental insurmountable barriers for computational methods, so-called algorithmically unsolvable problems.
Mathematical boundaries forcomputing
Already in 1960 it was observed that some of the tasks have simply described algorithms of solution consisting of exhaustive search, and you cannot solve them faster than using a brute-force. So, the algorithm has no practical value. Today one of the most important outstanding issue for the whole of mathematics and its applications in computational practice is the so-called P=NP problem: is it possible for those tasks, as has just been said, to have a solution faster than brute-force. Proof of impossibility of such an algorithm is expected and willcause mathematicians and programmers to concentrate on special classes of problems.
In today’s world is the following hierarchy or pyramid of mathematical activity:
The actual resources invested by society, as well as the number of employed professionals increase significantly when going from the top of the pyramid to its base. Vladimir Igorevich Arnold, referring to Ludvig Dmitrievich Faddeev repeated that costUSSRmath annum represented the cost of one tank. Here, the cost means the cost of pure math. At the same time, the high quality of the top of the pyramid is necessary to achieve quality results at lower stages. The Soviet Union possessed a unique scientific potential in the field of mathematics, this potential is largely focused in major research centers, because of the nature of the structure of Soviet society and its infrastructure, but that considerable resources will be invested and the results obtained and the republics, now independent States. Scientific links were available then and enhance recovery. The same information technologies can significantly help us here.
You can hear that information technology makes mathematical education unnecessary. On the one hand, there are professionals: “why learn geography, if you have taxis?.” On the other hand, required in many professions of the 19th century the ability to perform arithmetic operations, operate with interest etc. now is based on calculators and computers.
In fact the opposite is the case. Modern human needs much more mathematical literacy than 100 or even 50 years ago. The reason for this is increase in the number of jobs that people should make decisions and plan activities in a rapidly changing environment, and the reason for the many decisions and plans is just mathematics. The same applies to choosing and planning out the profession related to politics, the environment, own lives of citizens.
Today this is much more vast area of human culture than purely arithmetical literacy.
Types of mathematical literacy
You can distinguish the following kinds of mathematical literacy:
These elements of mathematical literacy are available now at the primary school level in a vivid, tangible form.
Pyramid of mathematical education
In mathematical education there is also a pyramid. There is the pyramid of levels of education, from pre-school to post-university. However, we would like to draw attention to another pyramid, and with that and with the outlined above pyramid levels of mathematical activities. We are talking about education in the areas of:
And here you can draw parallels, related to the cost of training. In short, investing in the training of highly skilled, creative mathematicians in the preservation and formation of scientific schools in mathematics should be considered a priority.
Math as a humanitarian knowledge
Finally, we will focus on the role of mathematics as humanities. We have already mentioned above, that the modern “computer” mathematics was created as the science of perfecting human activity, but not the only – and human thinking and language, too. Models are built in it today, in addition to the systems surrounding physical world yet:
A role of mathematics in personality formation
In modern comprehensive school mathematics plays a special role. This role is defined by at least two circumstances. The first is that the school, as in life, mathematics is used in a variety of areas and activities. The second mathematics is a unique school subject, which is formed by:
Elmir Velizadeh, deputy minister of Communications and Information Technologies of the Republic of Azerbaijan
Modern technologies – factor of social development
Dear Ladies and Gentlemen!
I am very pleased to greet you at the Baky International Humanitarian Forum. The topic of our today’s discussion is modern technologies that have changed our life.
It is obvious that there have been plenty of such technologies throughout the development of humanity. In a broad sense, we can speak about technologies in many fields. But in a narrow sense to specify as well as importance of this field in our contemporary life, I would like to draw your attention to information and communication technologies (ICT). In this respect, we could list telegraph, telephone, radio, television, but let us focus on the latest technologies.
It is no longer a secret that, after creation of computer technology and its applications in different fields, and especially with emergence of personal computers all of us have become their active users. If we think about whether we have used computer today the answer will surely be affirmative. Because there is no need to directly sit at the computer, since mobile telephone devices, ATMs, modern cars and other devices that we use in our daily life are also computers.
Mobile communication and internet have become an integral part of our life by adding efficiency, accessibility and other advantages to our daily activity.
Generally speaking, internet can be considered the most unique of all the technologies ever used by the human being. Within a short period of time internet has turned from specialized computer network into social network and today it can be considered as one of the main tools of globalization process. With emergence of broad applied potentials for running businesses, information access, communication among the people, as well as interaction with the state entities, internet has gained more actual peculiarities and usefulness. As a result new sphere of economy, internet industry, internet-economy have been developed. Over the recent years social networks, short message systems and blogs have also gained wide popularity. Figuratively, every person is involved in the network and they are an integral part of this network.
The main phenomenon of internet technologies is that every person is an active participant of internet development process. By participating in this process they increase the area of coverage, enrich information content, create web-sites and other various applied sources through exchange of messages, spreading their views and propagating free advertisement, etc. Thus, human being becomes a generator of new values – information and new knowledge. Owning to this fact today we talk about new stage of development, new formation – information society or a knowledge-based economy.
However, development is not a straightforward process and it fills our life with new directives and complications. The simplest example is that new words enter our vocabulary, which have been missed out so far or old words gain completely other meanings. “Retweet”, “friending”, “virmaker” and other corresponding words seem to be strange, but are widely used. Virtual reality becomes more attractive and natural. All of these lead to physiological problems; people become more selfish; develop double identity, egoism, greed, estrangement, and escapism. Personality crisis is considered to be one of the most complex problems generated by the modern post-industrial world.
Statistics of the latest years show that the number of social networks users grow dynamically. Considering the fact that average age group of active users is 18-25 ages means that the youth is more liable to risk group. Data spread in connection with the Internet Safety Day in 2011, makes us think about the following: young people sleep 2-3 hours less than their peers 10 years ago; at the average 8 hours per week are spent on online games; 700 billion minutes per approximately 500 million users are spent on Facebook monthly (at the average the day per user).
According to other statistics, especially to the results of public inquiry conducted inRussiain 2010, around 89% of internet users use social networks, whereas 63% of users use mobile phone for this purpose. It is very sad that 43% of users think that social media don’t make people closer, 42% think the contrary, and 15% have not come to any conclusion yet.
I think that these figures reflect the level of influence of modern technologies in our life. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct explanatory works on the principles of beneficial usage of modern technologies, especially among young people and children whose psyches are not completely formed. Usage of modern technologies for fomenting international, religious and race discrimination, incitement of illegal acts under the slogans of “democratic reform” or “personal liberty” are generally inadmissible.
Consequently, only accurate usage of modern technologies for the good of humanity, society and state in the whole can serve as a factor of social development of each country.
Thank you for your attention.
Professor S.B. Gashkov, Moscow State University named after M.V.Lomonosov.
All participants of this conference know that mathematics is an abstract science. That is a way a lot of people think that even if it is applied in the world, we scarcely face it in our daily life. Well it is applied indirectly – through physics, chemistry, mechanics, technicians, etc. Nowadays this point of view is absolutely wrong. I can say that all of us constantly here have a deal with very irreplaceable use of mathematics, as we all carry mobile phones in our pockets. The point is not just only mobile phones, but any digital technology. Now even cameras are digital. As well, all computers are also digital.
In the digital technology information, as we know, is transmitted as a sequence of zeros and ones. The naive view is such that it passes completely reliably, zero is indistinctive from one. In fact, errors occur for many reasons. Errors happen not only at a distant radio communications, but in the normal cellular communication. Errors occur when reading data from optical discs, especially from DVD discs, where the recording density is twice. Errors occur in the computer while reading information from hard disk. It should be mentioned that the capacity of hard disks have grown tremendously over the past ten years, the capacity is already hundreds of gigabytes. It’s all because of higher density of magnetic recording.
Naturally, errors occur. They need to be corrected. The whole vast area of science deals with this issue. It is called the theory of error-correcting codes. They invented a lot of different coding systems. One of the most popular theories is code-Boezi Dzhunthuri invented in the early 60′s. This is an American mathematician from Indian origin. However, according to some reports, the codes were invented at the same time by us, but they were not published for some obvious reasons. At those times the area of application of coding has been associated with defence technology, with space communications. Now error correction codes are used inevitably everywhere. So, the decoding algorithms are very well developed for codes Boezi-Dzhunthuri and they are based on the application in the calculation of the so-called finite fields. What about calculations? Arithmetical: addition, multiplication, division. Although it can be avoided. Division – a rather expensive operation.
Finite fields were invented by famous German mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss in the early XIX century. Finite fields are pretty simple. For example, a field of five elements – it’s just the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, which can be added, multiplied, but not only multiply as it will come out any number, such as for instance 15 and the result must be divided again by 5 and replaced by a rest . It means that the result will be always between 0 and 4. Here’s a simple example.
Furthermore, the famous French mathematician Evariste Lialois generalized Gaussian distribution and invented finite fields, in which the number of elements is not necessarily a prime number, but also prime power. In those days it was a progressive branch of mathematics. Generally, it is still in progress. However, more complex areas are developing in mathematics, for example, algebraic curves over finite fields. Specialists, who are engaged in the theory of numbers, were always proud of the fact that their science is pure and it is never used anywhere. The famous English mathematician Hardy in his book “Apology Mathematics” wrote the same things.
Then it became clear that the time had passed and these all started to be applied, and is used virtually everywhere. Encoding – it is committed to protect the information from the inevitable mistakes. However, the information must be protected also from unauthorized access and from the intentional introduction of errors. Nowadays it has also become very actual. A vast majority of things are done in that sphere. It is called the protection of information. And one of the methods used in it is data encryption, or cryptography.
Cryptography means the science or study of analysing and deciphering codes, ciphers, etc. in general, a classical cryptography is as old as mathematics. It is a few thousand years old. It is believed that it was used in ancientEgyptand ancientGreece. However, surprising point is that in the 70s of our century the public cryptography, in other words public key cryptography, has been invented. Also there is an equivalent term – an asymmetric key cryptography. The fact that the classical cryptography (also called symmetric key cryptography) is based on two issues that share the classified information must have the same secret key. One of them with the help of this key encrypts the information using an algorithm, and the other- with the help of this key decrypts it. In principle, the encryption system may be known to the opponent. It is necessary to avoid it. The opponent knows not only the key. Now, if there is a key, it is easy to decipher. If there is not a key, it is almost impossible to decipher. However, having a shared secret is inconvenient. We must somehow meet, send couriers, etc. But it turned out that there is an encryption system, where every person has a secret key that is not necessary to coincide. Nevertheless, they can exchange information, even if they are in different continents without meeting each other. Besides, no intelligence service can read it, well, almost can not. Theoretically, of course it is possible to read it, if you run all the super computers in the world, or if you are unlimited in time, for instance, if you have an opportunity to live 1000 years, then you can read. So it is practically impossible.
So public-key cryptography is now booming. Hundreds of conferences are being hold, a lot of journals are being published. Researchers from many countries, including Brazil, Taiwanare taking part in this sphere and a great deal of remarkable cryptographic systems have been invented. As an example we can say a system of electronic signatures. They are so popular that they have entered into cryptographic standards of many countries. They are actually used, as respectable people can sign these documents in electronic form, without meeting each other, meanwhile there exist a complete guarantee that the document was signed by the very person whose signature was needed. There is also a practical guarantee that the signature can not be falsified, and there is also a guarantee that those who signed the signature will not deny it.
There are plenty of exotic systems of signature, which is rarely used: the group signature, threshold signature, ring. They have many curious features, for instance, the ring signature has the feature that one man out of the ring can sign a kind of document, at the same time it is impossible to determine who signed it. But occasionally it is known that one person has signed and sent. There exists such kind of systems. By the way, such kind of system is not invented in our country. In my opinion, it was invented somewhere in China.
There are management systems of electronic voting. They are still not used practically, but they also have this property which is impossible to falsify the results and it is impossible to determine who voted how. There is a system called e-money. This is not the system that we use on the Internet: the different payment systems over the Internet. These are primitive systems. They are defective, they can not be called e-money. There are some complicated systems which are practically little used, but which can fully simulate the money, including their property such as nontraceablity, i.e. people are paying, then some set of numbers that serve as money, and it is not possible to determine when someone paid something. At the same time there is a complete guarantee that the person actually paid, and no one has any complaints. All these properties seem paradoxical, inconsistent with each other. Nevertheless, all these are achieved.
Well, I finish and just want to say that, though this modern mathematics develops in its own way, some of its areas find quite unexpected applications. As we see this tendency will continue to develop more and more, therefore, it is necessary to learn maths.
And the last thing I want to speak is about an American journalist Kahn, who wrote the book in its time “Code breaker”, where he first began to write about the open cryptography in the press, i.e. not about open, but classical cryptography (once opened cryptography only then began to appear.) He, for example, mentioned this statement: A great power is a power that has nuclear missiles, no ballistic missiles, nuclear bombs, and cryptography. Here on I want to finish.
Academician A.M. Magerramov, rector of the Baku State University
Balanced Development of Science and education in the circumstances of quick growth of intensive technologies
During the existence of the mankind people always questioned: when, in which period of time could we become the most usable for the society and the life could become interesting and useful for us?
Most probably those who lived in the nineteenth century and before would have found it difficult to answer this questions. This is due to the fact, that there were no clear criteria at that time, which would characterize this or that period in the history.
Those who lived at the end of XX and the beginning of XXI century can without any difficulty answer this question. In the XX century we witnessed many wars for the world dominance and for the change of political map of the world. In this view in the middle of last century many have considered the XX century as a period of wars and fight for the change of spheres of influence.
The second part of the XX century, in which we lived is characterized by the history of parallel development of socialism and capitalism. According to this many consider the XX century as a century of development of imperialism and others as a century of the construction of communism. But at the end of the XX century it has become clear, that this century is characterized by the construction of science and techniques, the coming up of new technologies, scientific-practical innovations and by the spread of information –communication technologies. In one word, the XX century entered the history as a century of information and speaking in broad sense as a century of science and education.
Each of the previous centuries was characterized by the coming up of a new technology, the development of which has stimulated the progress in this century. In XVIII century this were mechanical systems, in XIX century – steam machines, in XX century – technologies of gathering, transition, processing and storage of information.
Our century, as already noted, is characterized as century of quick development of science and new technologies. Nowadays the mankind is entering into the new stage of its development, in which not only the classic sciences are quickly developing, but also the new disciplines are appearing. The volume of the gathered scientific knowledge and the achievements of science and techniques are intensively penetrated into life.
In various countries the quantity of scientific publications in the leading journals are increased. Moreover, as it can be seen from the slide, in the last years the number of developing countries –China, South Chorea,India,Malaysiaare ahead of the developed countries in terms development in this area.
Naturally, this influences the scientific researches, and requires new approach to the organization of the process of education. In modern circumstances the penetration of new technologies of education, the wide use of modern information technologies and the establishment of more tight connections between theory and practice, which means between science and production, it is inevitable.
The success comes to those who are able to quickly process the great stream of information and to use it. The leading countries are those which could achieve the effective integration of science and education. The example can be seen in the introduced slide. For example 70 % of the laureates of the Nobel Prize 30 % of articles in the field of science and engineering and 44% of the most famous scientific articles in the world are on the account of USA. A number of already mentioned before developing countries are moving in this direction.
At present we need to spend more attention on the continuous renewing and expanding of basis scientific education and take all necessary measures in order to incorporate new scientific-technological knowledge. The preparation of specialists, which correspond to the modern criteria, require from the system of education not to stay behind from the development of scientific knowledge, to incorporate intensively into the process of education modern communication means and innovation technologies «know-how» and to search for possibilities for the creation of engineer-houses and techno-parks. This means to create in the circumstances of the quick development of intensive technologies the balanced interaction between science and education.
The internationalization of the higher education being an objective and dynamic process is passing into a new stage – the stage of integration. The evidence to it is the creation by the educational institutions stable relations with foreign partners and organizations, formation of regional unions of universities and working out of general strategy of development for the whole world under the aegis of UNESCO, UN and other organizations. As a result, this must lead to the unification of the world higher education into a single system.
In recent years an extensive work has been done in this direction in the post-Soviet area. An example is the unification of universities of Russia,Ukraine, Central Asia and Black Sea into the Eurasian Association of Universities, the Association of Universities of Caspian Sea and the Association of Universities of Black Sea. At the same time, the bilateral relationships with the famous higher education institutions of Europe and world are being developed, extended and consolidated, new departments of the famous universities of the countries of CIS are being opened. For example beginning from 2008 the department of Moscow State University is functioning in Baku. There are successes achieved in regards with the incorporation of Bologna system as well.
Not with standing this, our universities are still behind from the leading universities of the world. This can been seen from Shanghai rating of the universities, in which the majority are the universities of the USA, Japan, Great Britain and other countries. Here this expression should be reminded: “Not because America is so reach are the American universities so strong, but America is so reach because American Universities are so strong”.
Naturally there is a need to continue the integration into the world system of higher education. But before, we need to expand the integration between us, which means expand regional integration. And I am sure that very soon just like it is the case with science, also education will not have a home.
Modern trends of development of higher education bring to positive and negative outcomes. For example, due to the expansion of scales of higher education the problem of guarantee of the quality of education is on agenda. Modern society needs highly educated and mobile specialists very much. The society namely can and must stimulate the quality of higher education, influencing the labor market of new specialists. There is an acute problem of financing the growing scales of higher education. On the other side, the growth in the number of students makes the educational institutions decrease the spending on the modernization of infrastructure, library funds, international cooperation, preparation and training of teaching capacities. All these questions have been addressed by the President Putin during his recent speech in Ulyanovsk, who underlined the need for financing of education on the directions which are priority for economics and also the questions of placement at work of students.
It is alarming and that the difference in the level of economic development leads to such negative trend as the “brain drain”. For developing countries and countries in transition it is a very negative process. The fact is that developed countries are implementing a purposeful immigration policy, introducing more and more favorable conditions. Therefore, integrating into the world system of higher education it is necessary to consider not only positive but also negative aspects of this process. International cooperation helps to address such pressing issues as the relevance of content and level of higher education to the needs of the economy, leveled field of training in different countries, the strengthening of partnerships in this area. Along with this, it should also help to prevent “brain drain”. And one of its most important tasks is the preparation of qualified specialists for the national economies. Now this question is timely as ever. Azerbaijan has taken serious steps in this direction. First of all, in recent years the country’s leadership has focused efforts on the creation of new jobs. Special attention is being paid to improving working conditions and logistical support of science and education. It has become a good tradition to make an annual increase in wages of employees of these areas. Special attention is paid to young professionals who have received education due to the state scholarship at the leading universities of the world.
It’s no secret that poor funding of science in higher education leads to a gap between the academic and university science. A fundamental solution is to adopt comprehensive measures. Along with increased funding is necessary to form an educational complex, extensive involvement of leading scientists and experts to teaching, promotion of faculty and student research. Today, in developed countries, higher education acts on an equal footing with research and innovation.
In our republic work is focusing in this direction too. The call of the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev to “turn the economic potential into intellectual capital” is being put into practice. In addition Mr. President has also recently set us a task to develop in the shortest possible time (in 3 months) the National Strategy for the Development of Education in 2011-2021 years. I am confident that the discussions and conclusions of the Forum will be for us a powerful tool in working on this strategy.
In view of the foregoing, I want to bring up for discussion the following thesis relevant to modern society:
Today, science and education is not only one of the national priorities of developed countries, but also part of the world’s priorities. Now the methodologies and technologies are altogether changed, science is undergoing unprecedented changes in its development. Quality education must keep pace to respond to these changes. The most important and difficult aspect of this response is an introduction to the teaching of new scientific specializations. What matters is not so much the fundamental research on its own, as the society’s readiness to accept it and turn it into technologies that improve the quality of life and lead to a breakthrough in the socio-economic development. A willingness to accept innovations, the ability to get more out of practical use at the level of production and consumption level is the final product of the educational system. That is our goal as well.
Professor Eden Mamut, Black Sea Universities Network, Romania
Eco-Innovation and holistic engineering for sustainable development
The date of October 31st 2011 was designated by the United Nations as a symbolic date for declaring officially that the World Population has reached 7 billion people. This was done based on interpolated data from the original 5-year period estimates prepared by the Population Division. But, looking at the plot from figure 1, we can see that there has been an amazing increase of population in the last Century and a tripling of population during a single generation.
The growth of population has been coupled with a very high standard of living, unprecedented economic activity, extensive resource use, transport, communication and scientific breakthroughs, in particular since World War II and up to the 21st century.
The impacts of such an evolution are extremely complex and at present, and there is no comprehensive understanding of the dependencies between consequences such as the degradation of the environment or climate change and the intimate factors that are connected to such consequences.
In certain respects, this approach has been quite successful. For instance, it contributed to cleaning up water pollution, taking dangerous products off the market, recycling certain products, and slowing the acceleration of climate change.
However, since traditional problem solving begins after recognizing a problem’s existence, such policies are neither helpful on a systems level, nor are they preventive in a general sense. Solving individual problems by means of specialized environmental technologies can even exacerbate other problems, in particular those as yet undiscovered.
Today, more than 95% of the resources lifted from nature are wasted before the finished goods reach the market and many industrial products – such as cars – demand additional natural resources while being used.
This means that continued reliance on traditional “environmental technologies” is no longer enough. However, sufficiently decoupling production and consumption from nature requires new systems, goods, services, processes, and procedures for meeting human needs.
In such a context, the need to consider the entire lifetime of the development of the product or services is obvious. The analysis and optimization of each single element of the value chain integrates in the objective function, the minimization of the environmental impact. Many examples exist where incremental improvement of existing technologies has increased resource productivity two to four times. This approach opens new perspectives to the implementation of the sustainable development concepts.
The strategic mix for the implementation of sustainable development concepts includes three main pillars that are intimately bundled together:
From an engineering perspective, the most important challenge today is the accurate description of the complexity of the systems and processes. The main characteristics of such a complexity might be categorized as follows:
The classical definition of engineering as the application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems, is not suitable to address such a complexity. In the current context of the development of the mankind society, the complexity of the needs require to address them by emphasizing a more cross-disciplinary, whole-systems approach to engineering.
Such an approach is called Holistic Engineering as the Art and Science of creating effective systems, using whole system and whole life principles. As the basic tools in Holistic Engineering, there were developed the multi-dimensional models.
Multi-dimensional models or „multi-scale” as well as the integrated multi-phenomenological models or „multi- physics” have been developed in time, covering today a large number of applications including the materials science, the nano/microelectronics, the ecological reconstruction, the deactivation of the atomic armament and biotechnologies.
The multi-dimensional modelling approaches (MMD) can be grouped in the following generic categories:
But, the fundamental objective of holistic engineering is innovation. In a traditional acceptation, innovation is “the implementation of a new or significantly improved product (good or service), or process, a new marketing method, or a new organizational method in business practices, workplace organization or external relations”. Such a definition is neutral in the sense that it does not determine the content or the direction of change.
The term ‘environmental innovation,’ or shortly ‘eco-innovation’, relates to innovations aiming at a decreased negative influence of innovations on the natural environment.
Eco-Innovation means the creation of novel and competitively priced goods, processes, systems, services, and procedures that can satisfy human needs and bring quality of life to all people with a life-cycle-wide minimal use of natural resources (material including energy carriers, and surface area) per unit output, and a minimal release of toxic substances.
Under the frame of the Black Sea Universities Network, the aspects of sustainability are a continuous concern. Since 2011, the Black Sea Universities Network coordinates the UN “Academic Impact” Hub on sustainability. Our mission is to facilitate the transfer of knowledge from Universities to different other partners in promoting sustainability. A versatile portal has been developed and can be accessed at www.unai-sustainability.org. Individuals and institutions have the possibility to plug-in and participate in live conferences and discussion forums, to register in the databases and to access the resources. A number of selected projects are monitored and offer the possibility to transfer the best practices and experience. The selection of projects has been made during the International Conference on “Education & Governance for Sustainable Development”, organized under the frame of UNAI inConstantza,Romaniabetween March 16 and 19, 2011. The list of the projects is as follows:
For the implementation of sustainable economy or “Green Economy” a new kind of engineer is needed, one who can innovate by reasoning broadly across disciplines and by considering the human dimensions that are at the heart of every design challenge. Such an attempt requires a fundamental shift in education where the decision makers have to:
Professor R.A. Gasanov, Baku State University
Globalization and modern biotechnology
What advantages can globalization bring to innovate science, not only to survive, but also expand in the current economic storm. Nowadays, it might be important to concentrate on the aspects of globalization that already have been formulated by the knowledge of science, and have been advantageous towards social development. Progress in the sphere of technology, mainly in IT, have altered the communicative capabilities of humans both in time and space. The process of constant “compression” of this world especially in the last 30-50 years, due to modern communications has resulted in the foundation of a ‘common society’. However, it has also resulted in the disagreement between humanity and nature, and possibly it has already resulted in conflict, nurturing ecological and technological catastrophes’. Ecological technologies and ecological sources of alternative energy are the spheres of innovation that will enable a creative effect, a stable development and a national competitive capacity.
We shall analyze this point of view from a perspective of biotechnology and bio-energy within in the coming 10 years. Climate change portrays the inevitable creation of stable sources of energy based on alternative sources that have a minimal effect upon the earth. The guarantee of supplying this form of energy is already a different form of expectation. A vast amount of energy already falls upon the earths layers. The real question is, to what degree can solar energy be effectively converted into a comfortable means of energy that can be seen as a supply of heat, electricity and fuel. The solar energy that transcends upon the earth’s layer however is of small quantity during the winter season and night time. As a result it is of utmost importance to store this form of energy in an adequate form of storage. Hydrogen in a gas form is one of the different forms of sources of energy. Its advantages in the first place are that it does not bring any carbon dioxide emissions to the natural surroundings. However, modern forms of exctracting hydrogen does result in fuel being burned. The creation of an effective form of energy that is free from emissions makes this form of energy an interesting proposition for a stable and recurring energy system.
As a result artificial photosynthesis, that imitates a certain step of the whole process of photosynthesis created by green plants and algae, created with the help of sunlight energy for the decomposition of water with the extraction of electrons and the creation of hydrogen are all tendencies in biotechnology, that is being intensively studied . Why is it that hydrogen can be seen as a form of energy in the near future? As we know the International Agency for Energy predicts, that already in the year 2020, hydrogen will come out into the market as a form of energy. This will become a reality, if its extraction will be cheap and will not affect the surrounding negatively. In this way, the extraction of hydrogen from water with the help of sunlight in a system close to one in a green plant- is the path of a sustainable, renewable form of energy.
Professor S. Ismat Shah, Physics and Astronomy Materials Science and Engineering. DuPont Hall University of Delaware
Future Energy Alternatives
There are only few alternative energy sources that are viable for life-after fossil fuels. Most of these alternatives are somehow connected to sun. My talk will briefly survey how nanotechnology is going to shape our future energy and cover the following points:
a. A look at the current energy sources and their future.
b. Future energy options, particularly photovoltaics.
c. Feasibility of the photovoltaics for the future.
d. Materials and resource estimation.
e. Path forward for the solution to the impending energy crisis.
Judging from the number of conferences, papers published and research support, it may seem that the concern about the impending energy crisis has finally hit home. However, this is still not the case and the reason is that we have not yet found the right question to ask. In 2008, the world consumed approximately 15 terawatts of energy. Oil coal and gas provide most of the energy with nuclear and renewable energies only making noise in the consumption graph. The typical question that is asked is how we can produce the equivalent of 15 terawatts of energy by renewable resources? Diagrams are shown to convince people that there is abundant solar energy available on earth and that the problem is only the conversion of this energy into useful electricity or heat. This approach is totally absurd. Several analysts have reported models based on nations that have renewable energy as their prime objective in going forward, likeGermany, and came up way short. Short by about 60%, meaning that at the current rate of consumption, all the renewable resources available to Germany will only provide 40% of the energy. Where will the rest of energy come from? The approach then becomes where and how to find these resources. This is a very technological approach where it is not that if there is an answer, it is that there must be an answer. Technology have guided us at least through the last 200 years and it was there when we needed food, space exploration, armaments, etc., so why can it not again provide the solution to the current energy crisis. This much reliance on the technological solution renders every other non-technological solution out of sight and mind. Technology and technologists become Gods in front of which any other alternative become inconceivable.
No one is preaching returning to jungles. Technology is one of the solution but not the only solution. Through technology we can look for:
But we need to go beyond this. Human behavior has to be modified, life style has to change, and new living paradigms have to be practiced. These practices will help support the technological advances. Without these, we will always be on the short end of the stick.
There is a limit to the current technological practices for harvesting solar energy for the generation of electricity. Scientists have started talking about the first generation photovoltaic technology which is pretty much all of the current technology, and then to move from there into the second generation and even the third generation of photovoltaic technology. The first generation which is basically single junction Si based devices has a limit to the conversion efficiency which is known as the Schockley-Quiesser limit. This limit is based on the fact that for a single junction, single sun device there are various loss mechanism at work. First, if the wavelength of the light is lower than the band gap of the material (Si, in this case), the light is not absorbed at all. Second, if the light is of the proper wavelength the electron-hole pairs are generated but a majority of these electron-hole pairs are recombined to liberate heat. Third, if the energy of the incident light is much higher than the band gap of the material, the electron jumps to a level much higher than the conduction band edge. This is an unstable situation. The electron then thermalizes to the bottom of the conduction band. The energy thus liberated is also wasted as heat. All these considerations give the limit to the conversion efficiency for a single junction, single sun device of about 30%.
The second generation of devices goes around the assumption of the Schockley-Quiesser model in order to enhance the efficiency. In one example, the one junction limit is removed. With multiple junctions of various materials with varying band gap energies, it is possible to achieve a higher efficiency. Theoretically, the efficiency could range from 30% for1 junctions to 68% for infinite number of junctions. If one were to focus the solar light to make it more than one sun illumination, the efficiency could reach 90% for infinite number of junctions. There are several examples of these kinds of devices, known as tandem devices or multiple junction devices that show the device efficiency of approximately 50%.
Another approach to higher efficiency is related to the tandem devices but works in an opposite way. Instead of absorbing different wavelengths with single junction devices of various materials, the light itself is filtered to yield a single or a short range of wavelength. This light, when incident upon a material with matching band gap will be absorbed much more efficiently. Several schemes have been proposed for light filtering ranging from simple wavelength selective filters to light emitting diodes that emit specific wavelength light for the solar cells to absorb.
The hot electron problem mentioned earlier can also be used as an advantage. The hot electrons that sit high in the conduction band, when thermalize gives off energy. If this energy could be utilized to excite another electron then we could have one-photon absorption resulting in two-electron emission. Of course, this is not possible in bulk semiconductor since the thermallization energy is never equal to the band gap energy; however, this is possible in a quantum dot where due to the dimensional constraints several new energy levels form. The thermallization energy can cause the emission of electrons from these levels. Theoretically, it is possible to obtain several hundred electrons from one photon.
There are several other such nanotechnological schemes that break the assumptions in the Schockley-Queisser limit including mid gap state solar cells, etc., but all of these are technologically difficult to scale up. Actually, only the tandem or multiple junction cells have been experimentally proved to be workable in the lab. The rest of the possibilities exist only theoretically.
Two other cell designs that look promising are based on nanomaterials. In one, called the dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC), a dye is made to absorb the photon and the electron thud generated is transferred to a nano-matrix, typically TiO2, that then conducts this electron to the proper electrode. The dyes seem to be the weak point of this technology and much research is being conducted to find alternatives to the less stable organic dies. Nano dots of Ge and CdS have been used for this purpose successfully. The increase in the efficiency, still around 10%, has been remarkable over the last 10 years.
Another device that can now be commercially purchased, albeit still has less than 10% efficiency, is the Organic Solar Cells (OSC). Similar to DSSC, OSC relies of the absorption of light on an organic material. The electron-hole pair (exciton) thus generated needs to be broken up. In an inorganic material, due to the high dielectric constant of the materials, the electrons are effectively screened ole from the hole and the exciton binding energy is very small. Therefore, the field generated as a result of forming the p-n junction is sufficient to overcome this exciton binding energy. Polymers have a low dielectric constant and, therefore, require an extra surface where the exciton could be broken up into electron and hole. This surface is typically provided by buckyball derivatives. At the surface, the electron is taken away by the bukyballs and conducted to its respective electrode whereas the hole finds its way through the polymer to its electrode. There is a big issue of stability of these devices under solar exposure and much work is now concentrated on solving this problem.
In summary, technology and in particular nanotechnology, does provide solutions to partially fill in the vacuum that will be left after the fossil fuels are all consumed. However, these solutions fill in only part of the vacuum. The rest will have to come from the change in our life style to use less and less fuel, almost 60% less fuel.
Mina Hajiyeva, doctor of Philosophy, professor, Baku State University
Role of new technologies in public progress
The world civilization creates global culture which becomes property of mind of the Person. Any systems of life come and leave and from each of them there is knowledge in culture of thinking and life. Achievements of various epochs and peoples living on our earth are incorporated in global culture. Therefore, each historical time and the people living in it create in various spheres of activity: in scientific thought and in practice of manufacture of material welfare; in exact and in humanitarian areas. At the head of all real stays a Person – the creator.
The above is not abstract judgment, but historical practice of life of the person. For this purpose such epoch-making events as the present Forum which has taken place with initiative of Presidents of Russia and Azerbaijan are extremely needed. As well as organized by governing bodies of our country other International scientific, creative, sport and many other meetings of representatives of various nations of the world where are discussed the most important advanced achievements of world technologies for the welfare of the Person which is a stimulus for intensive development of our people as well as other nations of the world not only in the area of the exact sciences, but also in other spheres of life. It is not obligatory to be a big country in order to introduce and use new technologies. The main thing is to have aspiration and potential, as it is observed in modern Azerbaijan.
As it is known, the new technologies, new scientific researches, apart from scientific idea needs its application in the society that demands huge material inputs. Acquisition of the equipment of great value was one of the serious steps. At the result of that at the chemical faculty of the Baky State University were opened new possibilities for the newest technological researches. One of the founders of nanotechnologies in Azerbaijan is academician Abel Magerramov. In this direction fundamental scientific researches are conducted and serious results are obtained.
The particular interest is caused by social technologies in modern society. Among them it is possible to name Human Recourse Technology, technologies of social sphere management – outsourcing, benchmarking, «AssessmentCenter» technology, technologies of HR management, corporate information networks. But despite an abundance of new technologies in social sphere first of all namely the Person demands special attention.
When we speak about New Technologies it is clear that they affect all areas of human activity. I would like to show such an example from area of spiritual life of society. Great Uzeir Hajibeyli has introduced new technologies in professional music in Azerbaijan and through extreme difficulties by their application in educational system has cardinally changed public consciousness. Gara Garaev in the middle of the XX century has made an extreme leap in the field of new technologies of composer creativity. He has expanded philosophy-aesthetic borders of art thinking. He, as a unique genius, managed to connect national musical culture with twelve-ton Arnold Shoenberg’s system. Thus having created such masterpieces as «7 beauties» and «The Path of Thunder» ballets, Third symphony and the Violin Concert, – which are recognized in the world spiritual cultural sphere as masterpieces of time.
As we know, human thought is not a stiffened truth. Followers of Gara Garaev – Arif Malikov and a number of other composers have created works which have obtained the world recognition. And this, actually, means the entrance of original national thinking on the world scene.
Here we have given examples from three areas of social being – scientific, social sphere and society’s inner world. And it means that the beginning of XXI century has brought the new technological introductions in various areas of human activity. But, any technologies are directly connected with educational process. Aspiration of youth to advanced achievements, expansion of borders of knowledge are naturally realized in an education sphere. Here it would be desirable to refer to the beginning of our address and to prove reflections about culture of knowledge and globalization. Without culture of learning intellectualization of an inner world of the person is impossible. These are interconnected and interdependent processes in eternity of knowledge. The present world is opened for new technologies which connect the world of interests and the world of culture of knowledge, being transformed into global knowledge. Our scientists, representatives of various areas of creative intelligentsia and sports contribute a worthy mite in development of globalized world space.
I consider that present grandiose event will give an impulse to intellectualization of the Azerbaijan people. And this is a harmony of development of the world community.
K.Y.Eyyubov, BakuState University
Impact of the Informational Technologies on the labor market
It has been an enjoyable two days of scientific debates in our capital, Baky. We have discussed different aspects of the science in this international forum, where the word “Human” has been the center piece of the discussions. It is a great honor to be present here and to be given this opportunity to share my thoughts on humanitarian issue. The topic that I would like to discuss might seem a very specific area of human life, but I believe that it is an essential point and the one that unites us.
The 2008 financial crisis have severed the employment problem in most parts of the world. After the crisis, many countries have been left to face with bigger unemployment rates and nations’ frustration due to lack of new job opportunities. As a result, the labor market problems have taken the center of attention in economic research. But before giving my proposals on tackling the unemployment problem throughout the world, let me give you a brief historical overview of the labor market and specifically, focus on the impact of the informational technologies on it.
After the Second World War, the informational technologies have considerably changed the structure of the labor market and the search for work places, in general. If in the first half of the twentieth century, it was necessary to be physically present at the job markets; in the second half it was possible to find job opportunities by virtual presence. Internet, computing, mobile networks and online resources have altogether transformed the whole notion of ‘job search’. Online job offers have opened new horizons for the analyses of the labor markets. People have gained an opportunity to find new jobs while being still employed by means of online resources.
At the same time, it is worth mentioning that the employers have also started using informational technologies and resources while searching for potential employees. As a result of the above mentioned advance, the employers were able to finding more qualified candidates while economizing on the time resource.
The development of the informational technologies has also propelled the creation of jobs in fields such as computing, computer technologies, internet, internet resourcing, web design and other areas related to technology. Simultaneously, financial institutions, banking sector, electronic government projects and other economic spheres have taken advantage of this development.
Azerbaijani economy has also been subject to this development and has taken significant steps towards transforming its economy into an electronic form. It is essential to mention that the decrees of the president Ilham Aliyev have stimulated this progression in major way. Additionally, we can note that there are many private companies who have started offering job vacancies through their websites. Moreover, there are several specifically designated websites, which bring together job offering companies and job seekers.
The historic impact of the informational technologies on the labor market has given me the perspective of achieving and ease on the unemployment problem. In a moment, I will share my views with you and you would also realize the essence of my proposal. Let me take your attention to one important concern that being the growth of the world population.
For the last one hundred years, the world population has been growing at a steady pace between one and two percents per year. In 2009, this growth has been lowered to one percent per annum. Nevertheless, it is a considerable number. If we keep in mind that the world population would reach 7 billion by the end of this month, it means that starting from that point every year we will have 70 million new members of our planet. Just the population ofTurkeyevery year would be added to the globe. I am not going into nutritional, political or environmental issues that this growth would create. I would like to take back your attention on labor issue.
An addition of 70 million people to Earth would imply an addition of 30 to 35 million labor force. This tally would have a tremendous impact on the world labor market. Creation of 35 million new job places by old business tools would not be possible due to already saturated and dense use of these tools in labor market. It is necessary to widen these methods and use modern technologies, especially informational technologies while creating new jobs.
We can no longer think about traditional ways of employing people as an effective way of creating jobs. Of course, we would always need farming fields for growing crops, construction workers for building different structures, or politicians to represent our political ideas, but there needs to be a shift of significance from orthodox jobs to non-orthodox. There needs to be an important addition of informational technologies into traditional jobs. The virtual job vacancy advertisements should be of primary focus of labor economy. Both private sector and government should together use their efforts in this subject. A database of labor force could be created, in order to allowing the interested parties to find the employee with the required skills and the employer with the best offer in the shortest time possible. Alternatively, the development of the informational technologies themselves would create new labor prospects.
In the same way, we the scientists have a central task to carry. The research works that we do, the discoveries that we make, the philosophy that we share, the ideas that we propose have to strengthen and give an impact to the rapid development of the technologies and especially to informational technologies. If this changes and advances don’t happen fast enough, we might have to face with human catastrophes. The effect of the social problems that would be naturally created might be immense.
On a contrary note, one can imply that the new era of technological advancement would shift the labor based works into more technology oriented works and as a consequence would result in lower employment. Nevertheless, the expansion of innovative technologies would horizontally widen the employment rather than vertically. This would result in many jobs with little employment, but the number of the working places would increase due to high number of small numbered employment companies.
If you recall the beginning of my address, you would realize that I have pointed out the employment as the essential point that unites us. This is not a bizarre conclusion. Most of what we do throughout our lives in one way or the other is work. No matter we do it for money or voluntarily, we do it as part of human ideology. Humanity cannot function without work. And the earth being the limit, we would need to use informational technologies, to widen the areas of labor market. And we the scientists have the most important role by leading the way in this transformation.
Rasim Alguliyev, director of Institute of Information Technologies ANAS, Correspondent member of ANAS, Doctor of Science, professor
Information revolutions are driving forces of development of civilization
Summary. The role of information revolutions in the development history of civilization is investigated. Progressive effect of information abundance created as a result of information revolutions on social life is demonstrated. Gifts and promised perspectives of the last result of information revolution – the Internet, are researched. Changes made in all fields of society and opportunities created for solution of traditional problems through application of Internet, as well as inconvenience causing tendencies are analyzed.
Information revolutions (IR) that took place in civilization history stand at the origin of the road that leads the humanity to information society (IS). As information and knowledge form the basis and the target of the information society, it is necessary to focus on the reasons bearing these revolutions; and occurrences and opportunities created by them.
IR is a complicated process leading to formation of new relations and occurrence of qualitative changes in social-political and cultural life due to development of information abundance in all spheres of social and human activity in comparison with earlier periods, as a result of occurrence of completely new technologies and means in information registration, memorization, storage, processing and transfer fields.
We must note that, main philosophy of IS is related to elimination of time and space factors. People have been experiencing problems created by time and space limitations. Especially, information playing a key role in development of humanity has always been in bondage of time and space. It is the result of these limitations that a great volume of knowledge, wise phrases, folklore samples etc have been lost, and erased from memories. But, as the information technologies (IT) are developing, information has started to gradually break free from this dependence.
Time interval between IR is gradually reducing. Based on this, we can say that next information revolution will occur sooner. Because, Internet still is the virtual space of text, audio, video, graphical materials. This means that, Internet cannot process information obtained by visual, hearing, olfactory, gustatory and tactile organs that as yet serve to meet people’s information requirements. On the other hand, for the time being Internet cannot speak with people. Another problem is sharp reduction of information memorization value, while information transmittance value is still high. This, in its turn creates significant obstacles for conveyance of information to mass Internet resources. Such condition creates information asymmetry. For this reason, new scientific theoretical bases, new effects, laws must be invented.
IR that occurred as a result of invention of electricity in XVII century – creation of telegraph and telephone technologies partially solved the spacial information transmitting problem. As information memorization technologies were non-existent, time problem remained unsolved. For the time being last IR – foundation of Internet occurred as a result of creation of computers in 1940s, and convergence of communication and computer technologies in 1960s. The idea of Internet network development belongs to remarkable American scientist J. Licklider. In his “Galactic Network” concept, written in 1962, he proposed an idea of creation of global network that interacts with each other. Author stated the possibility of instant access of everyone to data and programs on any computer. In its essence, that concept was very close to the mission of modern Internet. For these merits, J. Licklider is fairly titled as “Father of Internet”.
By providing a higher speed for spacial conveyance of information, this convergence solved the time problem by carrying out its memorization. As ICT developed, these opportunities rapidly increased. Already, information free of time and space limitations is submitted to Internet, and everyone uses these resources. There are more than 500 million web-sites and their number rapidly increases. Internet is becoming worldwide information storage (memory).
Last information revolution formed the basis of transmission of the humanity to IS stage from industrial society stage. The main duty of the ideology of millennium – IS, is to meet information requirements of all people irrespective of their age, religion, language, race, space and time, create social communication space among them and conveys their knowledge and thoughts to the society. By performing the duty that lays before IS, people will attain an extraordinary and phenomenal mean for solution of global social-economical and moral problems inherited by the humanity for thousands of years such as elimination of poverty, destitution, illiteracy, protection of health, development of democracy, provision of human rights and other human values.
One of the authors of IS concept, eminent American sociologist A. Toffler analyses the direction of revolutionary changes effect the development of civilization in his book “The Third Wave”. He divides the development stages of the society to 3 waves – agricultural society, industrial age society and information society. He notes the increasing role of information and knowledge exchange, reduction of importance of traditional production factors such as labor, land, raw material and capital, the transformation of electronic information as the main exchange mean instead of traditional money, occurrence of wars for information that reflect commodity and service standards in IS conditions.
Although, Internet that forms the basis of the last IR, occurred as a technological novelty, it caused an “earthquake” within information world formed during civilization history. Internet is a unique and phenomena incomparable in humanity history, that does not allow precisely forecasting its development, perspectives, effects, threats. Vast opportunities created by this global network result in significant changes in mindset, communication, activity and social relationships of people.
Internet is becoming a virtual space where the world is “gathering”. Currently, over 30% of World population is the residents of the virtual world. The number of web resources on “Worldwide web” has surpassed 500 million, the number of social network users is beyond 1 billion.
Internet is effecting the acceleration of the globalization process in the world. This digital technology reflects an enormous information and knowledge potential, leads to unification of the humanity in one global society by surpassing the national-cultural borders. Vast opportunities created by this global Internet network result in significant changes in mindset, business methods, communication and social activity of people. As radio and television partially eliminated the intercountry, language, cultural, folklore etc differences in the second half of the last century, Internet is about to completely eliminate these differences.
Internet also creates new opportunities for solution of a historical problem of the humanity such as asymmetric distribution of information, extinguishes the veils and borders between countries and nations. There was a very lengthy information and knowledge exchange process among different regions, countries and nations of the world during weak communications periods. Thus, differences based on information asymmetry among countries were evidently visible. But nowadays, information and knowledge exchange opportunities among countries are becoming vaster due to capabilities provided by ICT and Internet. There are a larger number of people entering into marriage from different locations of the world, and as a result a new human generation (cross-national) is emerging. As a result, a decline of hereditary illnesses that existed throughout the history is expected.
Due to the influence of Internet, electronic twins of the worldly real beings are emerging: traditional education is replaced with electronic education, traditional science is replaced with electronic science, citizens are replaced with electronic citizens etc. Thus, the world is uniting due to the unity of these twins; hereditary imperfections (problems) are eliminated.
Internet eliminates a number of important attributes of industrial society, such as cinemas, bookstores, traditional trade, and communication systems. Significant changes in the image of the cities is expected especially due to development and comprehensive use of electronic commerce, electronic banking systems. In electronic commerce environment, an ordinary village store surpasses the limited frames and not only becomes a mean for meeting the requirements of a residential point, but a global store. Because, it is possible to enter the web-site of the store from any point of the world, and review and purchase the products provided in the store. Also, there’s no such idea as closing of the store. The store provides its services to customers 24 hours a day.
Emergence of electronic commerce serves to solve one of the important problems that stand before the humanity up to date. It is the problem of information asymmetry on markets. As the seller does not possess information about the identity of the buyer in advance, so the buyers face the problem of lack of information about the certain identity of the sellers in advance. Thus, infraction of information asymmetry has always formed the basis of commercial relations. Electronic commerce leads to symmetry of information asymmetry, which in its turn results in information abundance between the seller and the buyer.
Development of computers and internet leads to emergence of virtual relations among people instead of traditional relations, and focuses on intellectual labor. Due to the influence of information, all types of markets, as well as labor market is transformed. As a result, principal changes occur in labor distribution, employment and professional structures, labor characteristics, principal changes and innovations in employer-employee relations, and increase in information volume of labor are observed.
In virtual labor relations environment, people can not only organize their positions, but as well as activities in accordance with their personal interests. If a person can eliminate the necessity of attending work on a daily basis and gain an opportunity of working at any place, then he can choose a more comfortable residence. In some European regions, relocation of villagers to cities that has lasted for more than 200 years has weakened and although still weak, there is an observed tendency of returning to villages. Based namely on this fact, ideas about starting of urban civilization dissolution process are being voiced.
Internet has a very vast effect on economical field. As a result of this effect, traditional economical-financial system of the world is subjected to serious changes, crises on regional and global scales are emerging, and justified disturbances about economical security of the countries are created. Economy based on information and knowledge is formed.
With creation of Internet, the phrase by A. Toffler “mass standard production will be replaced by new individualized labor system based on intellectual activity with application of informatics and super technologies” is starting to justify itself. He noted that, instead of domination of large corporations, creative activity in individual and group form will be spread and rational exchange of its results through Internet will be conducted. Indeed, such construction of social relations creates conditions for providing rational, equivalent social exchange opportunities. The simpler exchange structure is, the clearer and more transparent are the relations among producers, as well as shorter is the distance from producer to final consumer. In that case, there is no more need for traditional trade coordinators (brokers, dealers), Internet takes on their functions. In its turn, the bigger and more complex is the social organization, the more complicated it is for objective analysis. This situation creates environment for manipulations.
In Internet economy, personal computer becomes the main production instrument, and personal site is the mean for realization of produced intellectual product. Naturally, in such economy, there will be no place for private ownerships (as manipulative activity field) that are not related to professional activity and directed at obtaining social dividends.
The essence of virtualization of economic activity as a result of Internet influence is that a human does not interact with real objects, but their images and symbols. Virtual relations have not started to emerge nowadays. These relations have passed an evolutionary road throughout the development sequence of telegraph, telephone, fax and Internet. Only Internet not only simulates real objects, but also simulates their activity in real time frame. Internet forms a completely new situation for traditional economy by creating a unique virtual space for market participators.
The character and nature of government administration changes in Internet environment. Development of electronic government is related to optimization of services rendered by the administration institutions to population and business sector, participation of all citizens in government administration, as well as transparence of government administration and accountability of the government institutions before the citizens. The essence of new administration concept consists of a softer, better structured administration activity with limited norms, based on not horizontal but vertical contacts. Another significant importance of the electronic government is the complex application of e-trade system for implementation of purchasing and services for important government needs.
Internet-technologies have a rapidly increasing role in modern political processes. Modern information technologies, especially Internet creates new opportunities for political parties and political leaders for active works. The increasing level of Internet use creates conditions for active participation of citizens and groups in preparation and approval of political decrees. Political parties also use Internet technologies as political communications means. Political activity is surpassing its traditional activity space and transferring to virtual environment.
Society is going through a transitionary phase from representative democracy to direct democracy, digital democracy, as well as from strict democracy to flexible democracy (for example wiki-democracy etc). Specialists think that, traditional democracy has reached its crisis point. There is no more potential for development of new democratic processes through traditional methods. Thus, “electronic democracy” is proposed as solution from given situation. It is noted that, in current period of globalization and political transformations, the influence of Internet on political processes cannot be ignored. There are two factors related to influence of Internet on development of democracy: firstly, availability of information; second, capability to analyze information and make decisions. Naturally, Internet creates unique capabilities to obtain information that were impossible before.
Internet is immediately directed at social judgment, and forms the behavior of active layers of citizen society and influences social consciousness. By forming the information environment of activities of political leads and parties, Internet becomes an important constituent of political communications. Global network serves as a real interactive channel for communication with population and political instrument of influence on electorate.
Social networks that existed historically and acted under different names, elevated to a different qualitative level by transferring to Internet environment. By gaining opportunities such as efficiency, flexibility, mobility, informativeness through Internet-technologies, different social groups are becoming an important factor in society. Virtual social networks created by people united by different interests are serving as an important component of social-political, social-economical and cultural life of the society.
By encircling the Earth, Internet is creating new network societies. Eminent Spanish sociologist, IS researcher M.Castells considers that in information century, networks connecting people, organizations and countries will play an important role. By his opinion, economy, labor, employment, culture, politics, government institutions, and finally time and space factors will be liable to transformation in information society.
One of the most important factors of Internet influencing social activity is the opportunities created for information exchange among people. Through global network computer communications are nowadays creating a new sphere of mutual information communications that base the new form of social relations. At the initial level of Internet development, users were provided with one-way data through web-sites (web1.0). But users are already capable of directly enter into interactive contact with the opposite party on social networks and other sites through web2.0 technology. In its turn, this enables more flexible and unhindered communication among people on Internet.
Internet is a new level communication. There is no control and limit of information on Internet. People from different continents can freely communicate o Internet. Using Internet as research mean creates new opportunities for empiric sociology (complex research field directed at collection and analysis of information using social research methods, methodology, mechanisms). But, there are a number of complications arising while collecting qualitative information from respondents while conducting social surveys using traditional methods.
There is a 10 year world-wide experience of using Internet for conduction of social surveys. International experience demonstrates that Internet accelerates the process of collection of initial sociologic information for research of social processes. Quality changes create environment to pass on a new level of communication between sociologists and respondents for information exchange among people in virtual environment of Internet network.
Formation process of collective intellect in the world (both natural and artificial) is accelerating due the influence of Internet. These conclusions are reflected in “Collective brain” concept of academician N.Moiseyev. By “Collective Brain”, he considered a system uniting people with informative connections. He considered that, collective brain will be a collective regulation system formed using IT, in order to not only collect and transfer information, but simultaneously posses analyzing and decision making capabilities, uniting individual intellects in a special method, notifying about the upcoming crisis threats, and proposing alternative development methods.
New services are proposed as the Internet is developing. Internet creates environment for interhuman communications, and meets information requirements of people. Recently, Internet has started meeting computing requirements of people. “Cloud Computing” technology allows to gain access to software, database, and other services through different devices. Cloud computing is capable broadening the capabilities of IT by eliminating a number of technical and economical obstacles. Elimination of these obstacles will provide conditions for millions of specialists to present their contributions to IT market, and billions of users to benefit from these contributions.
Internet is widely influencing health system and medicine field. Wide use of Internet capabilities in informatization of health system, solution of medical problems is one of the important directions of IS construction. As well as development of information system about health of citizens, determination of illness geography using GIS-technologies, conduction of monitoring, diagnostics of patients, creation of drug-store and medicine data base, rendering medical services to patients on-line, creation of web-portals containing statistical information and qualitative and quantitative indicators of doctors activity, information about treatment methods and means and etc issues are main components of electronic medicine in process of formation.
Next step in Internet development direction is gradually passing from computer networks to objects network (from books to cars, from electric devices to food products), creation of Objects Internet. Solution of a number of important problems is expected with application of Objects Internet. I.e. Objects Internet will lead to improvement of life and health conditions of people, creation of new and more convenient jobs, creation of new business opportunities, increase of productivity and competitiveness in production, more effective administration of transportation system, increase of reliability of ecological monitoring, controlling natural processes etc.
Provision of security of global Internet network is an important issue for its continuous and reliable operation. Information security becomes the most important factors in Internet environment. Internet is a propitious field for intelligence, diversion, terror, protest actions. Global network has a multi-branch architecture, which rotates a large amount of scientific-technical, military, social-economical and political information. As a result of an information security threat, political, economical, military and other activities of the countries can be seriously damaged, which can result in important social-economical damage of separate citizens or society in general.
In accordance with calculations of American experts, breakdown of computer networks used in government administration systems and banking structures can result in complications as dangerous as those of nuclear weapons that can be applied against the country.
Criminal actions related to computer systems and Internet hold an important place in among law offences in countries where Internet is widely used. Rapid increase of felonies in Internet environment is primarily related to characteristics of this global network – exposure, availability for everyone, lack of supervision by any country or organization. Also lacks of legal regulation mechanism related to Internet activities, existence of jurisdiction problem, as well as lack of professionalism of law enforcement institutions in this field create conditions for advancement of criminal actions in cyberspace.
Consolidation of Internet network security, more effective struggle with cybercriminals on national and international scale, reliably operation of electronic commerce, high-level human rights provision in cyberspace make the development of Biometric Internet based on biometric technologies necessary. It will be possible to fight hackers, spammers, and other cybercriminals more efficiently using Biometric Internet.
Energy security is one of the necessary factors for normal and durable operation of Internet. In modern period, power cuts can result in paralysis of government and private corporate computer networks, automated production and service institutions, and a large volume of financial losses. Specialists consider that uninterrupted, reliable power supply is topical in IS based on capabilities of Internet. Thus, restoration of existing energy sources and discovery of alternative sources are one of most important issues for humanity.
One of the important problems created by Internet is complication resulted abundance of information in the society. By overusing information, computer, Internet, people become dependent from them. This social-psychological condition is called “escapism”. In modern society information sources such as television, computer, Internet, cell phones “devour” people’s time and become their life priorities. The volume of the information received by a modern person over a two week period is equal to the volume of information received by a medieval person over his/her lifetime. A. Toffler calls the psychological reaction of a person to rapid and radical changes occurring in society due to the influence of technology – “futureshock”. According to his opinion, the reason for falling into state of shock is inability to rapidly react to new realities and adapt to new situations emerged from technology.
Information and Internet dependence problem is a threat source not only for an individual, but a society in general. It is necessary to posses’ information culture and learns information behavior norms in order to avoid dependence from information sources and Internet.
Internet, social networks cause emergence of new generation war technologies – information war. Leading countries are considering this field as one of the important directions of national security. Security of Information space is reviewed on the equal level as security of land, water and air space of the country. Provision of information space security is ranked among military task of the country.
Internet is an environment where traditions, languages, cultures and religions of world nations collide. In virtual environment countries rich in economical, technologies capabilities, international operational language contents, and ideological resources pose a serious threat to national-moral existence of other countries. There are already great losses in this field. Researches demonstrate that, a number of languages face a threat of extinction in near future due to the influence of Internet.
Difficulties of determination of a jointly accepted unique regulation policy, principals, and mechanisms of Internet are mostly related to these factors. Thus, each country wishes to be represented on the virtual space with its national-moral values. It is difficult to find a common point that meets the interests of all parties on Internet. For this reason, traditional national and international law systems face complications while regulating realities emerging from Internet. They propose initiatives for conduction of international level measures for its regulation. Internet makes international legal norms and national laws based on geographical borders, powerless. It is rather difficult to control virtual relations formed based on opportunities created by Internet technologies with worldly laws, and even sometimes is impossible. Regulation of virtual relations makes the creation and application of new laws and norms specific to this environment necessary.
The biggest threat of the Internet is related to deformation of the human factor itself. Serious changes are observed in social and biological characteristics of a human due to the influence of IT, and particularly Internet. Integration process of a human to technosphere is implemented as a result of these changes.
Development of IT and rapid increase of urban population forms a scientifically developed human mentality and scientific-rational life style. Rapidly socializing person jeopardizes his natural, biological existence for the sake of future social progress and holding a decent position in society.
Not only physical and biological parameters of a person, but also his interest and demands are transformed. Generally, there are three main directions of differentiation of a human transformation:
Biology. Processes of loss of natural, biological characteristics of person, change of gene pool, mutation, emergence of cardiovascular, oncologic, immunologic (infectious) illnesses otherwise called as “civilization illnesses” occur. As a result, people “penguinize”.
Moral-psychological. Cases of mass disorders in human psychology, a number of pathological effects, misunderstanding of environment happen, deviant (unsuitable to the social norms of the society) behavior, social aggression, hopelessness, cases of suicide etc increase.
Social-cultural. Rapid development in quality of mentality, education and profession fields, occurrence of changes in relation to environment, rapid increase of interest and demand in technological field is observed.
It must be noted that during development history of civilization each progressive novelty brought along certain problems. But humanity always derived advantage from progressive novelties, and handled the emerging problems. Internet that forms the basis of modern ICT, is a unique and incomparable phenomenon in civilization history. No other technological novelty had been able to change and carry the humanity forward as much as the Internet. Internet has a large scale of benefits for humanity, as much as complications that cover all fields. But rich past experience and current efforts of the humanity demonstrate that people will be able to eliminate the complications emerging from Internet for the sake of good opportunities and a more comfortable life.