Round table began at 9:30AM on 1 November 2013, in the ‘Segah’ Grand Ballroom of ‘Four Seasons’ Hotel. Moderator of the round table was the Director of the Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Prof. Nazim Mamedov (Azerbaijan). With his opening speech, President of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, academician Akif Ali-zadeh (Azerbaijan) noted the importance of the Forum and the relevance of topics on which to discover the discussion sections during the round table. He also gave a short summary for each of the three working sessions – on quantum computing, breakthroughs in the study of matter and green energy. Academician Ali-zadeh at the end thanked all the guests for their consent to participate in roundtable discussions and gave the floor to the chairmen of the first working session ‘Quantum Computing’ – Prof. Dan Shechtman (Nobel Prize Winner for Chemistry in 2011, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) and prof. Nazim Mamedov (Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan).
Prof. Dan Shechtman opening session ‘Quantum computing’ noted that the discussion will be presented on 5 performances, announced information about the schedule of speeches and invited Prof. Jaewan Kim (Korea Institute of Advanced Study, South Korea) for the first performance report ‘Overview of Quantum Computing and Quantum Information Science and Technology’. Prof. Kim noted that if in the XX century achievements of quantum physics allows us to create different equipment based on it, in the XXI century society is able to expand the applications of quantum physics even to create the software and operation systems. This is mainly achieved through greater understanding of the principle of superposition and quantum parallelism. Based on this principle quantum computing became more rapid and wide. He cited specific examples, such as the quantum Fourier transform, quantum simulation and especially quantum cryptography, which today is absolutely safe method of data transfer and digital communications. He also noted the effect of entangled states that in contrast with the classical approach allows teleportation or more correctly, quantum teleportation. Prof. Kim told about the differences between the classical and quantum computing, explained in detail difference about qubit information and bit of information, and shown how in general communication channels works in terms of the two-qubit channels. A detailed review of the known quantum keys used in quantum cryptography was also carried out. During questions to the speaker, it was clarified that due to the safety when exposed to the initial wave function, this function is destroyed and in general quantum system works on this principle.
Vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Sergei Aldoshin (Russian Federation), in his report entitled ‘Entangled Electronic States of Paramagnetic Nitrosyl Iron Complexes and Prospects of Their Application’, gave an example of the discovery of a new substance, which is of great interest in terms of quantum computing. This substance is a very simple molecule that consists of two atoms – nitrogen and oxygen – and called NO. The substance has a great influence on the cardiovascular system. In 1998, Robert Furchgott, Louis Ignarro and Ferid Murad were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for discovery of the role of this molecule as a messenger molecule in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. Academician Aldoshin also brought new results of collaboration of several scientific institutions of the Russian Federation, which allow you to apply the same molecules for quantum computing, creating the basis for their entangled electronic states. During discussions on the report, director of the Institute of Chemistry of Additives of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, academician Vagif Farzaliev (Azerbaijan) thanked the speaker for his interesting presentation and noted that Academician Nikolai Markovich Emanuel had predicted impact of hydrocarbon oxidation also understatement growth of malignant tumors, and one of these inhibitors is nitrosyl – iron. Reporter confirmed that indeed this molecule was first studied in Moscow by Nicholai Markovich’s group, but unfortunately has not been brought before the discovery of its signaling properties. Academician Aldoshin also noted that obtained medications are at clinical stage testing and they are hoping that some of them will come to the market at last.
Continuing the theme of quantum computing, a professor at Ghent University Joris Van der Jeugt (Belgium) presented a talk entitled ‘Quantum Computing: Communication Channels by State Transfer in Spin Chains’. He spoke in detail about the idea of creating quantum processors, and showed that one of the ways of combining of quantum processors by the qubit transmission channels are linear spin chains with fermions. Prof. Van der Jeugt also showed that in the presence of fermions interacting with the nearest neighbors in the chain the opportunity of zero-loss information transfer occurs. In his report, he demonstrated a mathematical instrument of that zero-loss transmission. During the discussions, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry of 1992, Professor Rudolph Marcus (California Institute of Technology, United States) said that the speaker showed just two examples of information transfer without loss, but in principle probably there are other examples for such spin chains. Prof. Van der Jeugt replied that there is also a q-deformed orthogonal polynomials scheme and one can construct similar spin chains using their properties. For such chains one can also send information without any loss.
Professor Enver Nakhmedov (University of Würzburg, Germany; Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan) continued the theme on quantum computing with the report ‘Majorana Fermions in One-Dimensional Metals with Superconducting and Charge-Density-Wave Instabilities’. The report was based on the effect of possible conversion of the metal wire with spin-orbit interaction and Zeeman magnetic field in quantum topologically ordered state in the presence of superconducting or charge-density wave instabilities. Speaker noted that such states generate excited Majorana fermions, and non-Abelian statistics such fermions, just allows the same topological insulators to be used for quantum computing.
Professor Naotaka Uchitomi (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) was the last speaker of the ‘Quantum Computing’ section report of ‘Progress and Prospect of Ferromagnetic Materials for InP-based Semiconductor Spintronics’. Reporter made a detailed overview on the latest developments of three advanced technologies – electronics, photonics and magnetism. Further, he noted that the ferromagnetic semiconductors are of particular interest today from the scientific and technological point of view because of their potential application to create a new generation of spintronic devices. Many research groups, including the group of prof. Uchitomi now focused in creating thin film materials that can behave as ferromagnets at different temperatures. One example – a thin film of Mn-doped ZnSnAs2, which behaves like a ferromagnetic of InP-based spintronics at room temperature. Half-metallic ferromagnets are also of great interest, since they are a source of spin-polarized current. ZB-type MnAs structure is one of such materials whose characteristics allow to use them as effective spin injectors in InP-based spin transistors.
Round table moderator, director of the Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Prof. Nazim Mamedov (Azerbaijan) has announced the transition to the discussion on the working section ‘Breakthroughs in matter exploration’ and suggested that the Nobel Prize Winner for Chemistry of 1992, Professor Rudolph Marcus (California Institute of Technology, USA) and academician Tofig Nagiyev , Vice – President of the National Academy of Sciences (Azerbaijan) to preside in the first part of this section. Professor Marcus introduced the first speaker, Nobel Prize Winner in Physics of 2004, Professor David Gross (Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, USA). Prof. Gross presented a report titled ‘Exploring the Nature of Matter’. He noted that his report covers the study of the nature of matter in the broad sense. Questions raised in the report – what the matter consists of, and what is the structure of our Universe? The matter can be created in two ways. The first is the creation of matter in the laboratory. For example, in chemistry, where we can create molecules of atoms. Today we have in our hands very powerful tools for this, both experimentally and theoretically. Another matter around us is condensed matter, consisting of atoms studied by means of laws of general physics. Another form of matter is matter, which is created from elementary particles. 2000 years ago, Democritus said that all matter is composed of elementary particles and he called them atoms. A hundred years ago, Rutherford was able to split atoms themselves into more elementary particles. Discovery that the atom itself consists of a nucleus and electrons orbiting around it, made it possible to create a good atom model for theorists. Bohr atom theory, the centenary of which we celebrate this year, was a simple model, but this model has served as the soil structure of quantum mechanics. That theoretical quantum mechanics later allowed us to fully understand the structure of matter and all its forms around us. Everything is started with the atomic theory, understanding the structure of atoms, and the periodic table of chemical elements made part of chemistry physics, possible to explain the molecular structure of atoms. But in terms of elementary particles, the main issue of the last century was the question: what happens inside nuclei themselves? This question was interesting because in the center of the atom is a small positive nucleus, which constitute the essential mass of atom. Until now, the method of Rutherford is not outdated. Then he faces the target with alpha particles, and today in many experiments we are doing the same. If we took and pushed two of Swiss watches towards each other with great force, small parts of these watches would be scattered in different directions. And then, if we started to study these smaller parts in order to understand how to construct a Swiss watch, then our method of their research would be considered stupid. But this method is not stupid in the case of elementary particles, and now a hundred years as we follow the Rutherford method in our research. We not only follow, but during these hundred years we have been able to find answers to almost all questions about the structure of the nucleus. We can confidently say that in addition to electrons around, the kernel itself consist of more elementary and strange particles – quarks. Their strangeness is because we can never observe quarks directly. But not only this. We can also understand what forces act between elementary particles. Especially this understanding allowed us to create a unified theory of elementary particles and forces of interactions (in the framework of quantum mechanics) that make up matter itself. Although pure math inherently, this theory has been tested in thousands of experiments in quantum mechanics, were carried out and a lot of precise measurements. This theory is the Standard Model or the standard theory. In this theory, a number of elementary particles – quarks, which make up the protons and neutrons, which are part of the atomic nuclei, leptons and neutrinos, which are linked together, and heavy quarks and leptons found in the last 50 years, as well as the fields associated with interaction forces of elementary particles – electromagnetism of photons, the strong interaction of gluons and W, Z bosons of the weak interactions, and the most recent Higgs field and particle, associated with this field. All of them together explain the fundamental matter of the universe. This theory is very successful, because it is true for the very small distances. The most important particle – the Higgs boson has been found one and a half year ago using Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Three years ago we’ve started experiments in it. Researchers collected 10 billion cases of collisions of protons, save all data and analyzing all these data searched for at least one incident of a billion, which would indicate the existence of a boson. This analysis was done within the CMS and ATLAS, a collaboration of thousands of scientists from around the world. To find such isolated cases in the saved data still had to overcome a huge amount of background effects of various other decays. In short, if we take the three forces of interaction, we can see that they can be combined in a very short distances. Now the next goal is to unite all the forces of interaction. It is possible for quite short distances. And the main issue is to make gravity be tangible in the same scale. And make truthful analyzes in these areas is very difficult. Many theorists believe that on such a scale there are new additional measures. These arrangements differ from conventional measures and they lead to new symmetries. In such symmetries is possible the existence of new forms of matter. Theorists see them indirectly. They are called dark matter. This is the same as in the galaxy we see stars that form the Milky Way, but did not see the dark matter around stars that also exists. There is a view formed today that the main mass of matter is the dark matter. And we are confident that in the next decade new forms of matter will be discovered for sure. On the question of Professor Mais Suleymanov (Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan) that before the discovery of the Higgs boson a lot of discussion about the physics beyond the Standard Model has been done. What we can say about such physics today? The reporter noted that this was due basically because of that boson itself was not detected, but it is now found, but there is still some unclearness. In fact, there are a lot of reasons for this. One of them – dark matter. We also still cannot explain the mass of quarks and leptons. Our theory is powerless to do this for today. There are a lot of reasons to create a new physics beyond the Standard Model. This is only the beginning. LHC at CERN has shown only 5% of the Collider’s capabilities. Many of us believe that in the next 10-15 years we will see very important discoveries.
The next speaker, Professor Tadeusz Kurtyka of the European Organization for Nuclear Research – CERN (Switzerland) presented its report entitled ‘International Collaboration in Particle Physics Experiments – Recent Achievements and Future Challenges’. He gave brief information about CERN, spoke about the construction of the LHC in collaboration with different experts from around the world. Prof. Kurtyka gave detailed information about the detectors, used in the LHC experiments. For clarity, he has showed in the comparison the photos of the Maiden Tower in Baku and the ATLAS detector at the LHC. It was noted that 27 countries are now the members of the CERN and 11,000 employees in 100 countries working in this organization. In short, CERN unites people of different nationalities as well as different professions and scientific interests. Some examples of specific projects of such unity were given. Prof. Kurtyka also noted that thanks to the JINR in Dubna (Russia), CERN was able to establish close relations with the former Soviet republics. He specifically thanked the Azerbaijan research group for their contribution to the collaboration of ATLAS. In the end, the speaker gave detailed information on the future work of the LHC experiments.
The next speaker was Professor Nicholay Rusakovitch (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research – JINR, Russian Federation). He has presented a report titled ‘Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Today and Tomorrow‘. Speaker noted that 18 countries are members of JINR and 6 more countries are associate members of the international organization. 4500 employees now work at JINR. JINR goals are exactly the same as at CERN. Prof. Rusakovitch also gave detailed information about the available JINR equipment and installations and projects for various research areas. At the end the speaker talked about the transfer of technologies under the JINR.
The latest in the first part of this section by Professor Mais Suleymanov (Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan) with the report titled ‘Azerbaijan and Pakistan in ALICE’. The speaker spoke about the scientific idea of the ALICE experiment, and the contribution of Azerbaijani and Pakistani researchers to analyze the data collected for the detection of the quark-gluon plasma.
After the lunch break, the moderator of the round table , the director of the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan , Professor Nazim Mamedov (Azerbaijan) announced the continuation of discussions relating to the working section of ‘Breakthroughs in Matter Exploration’ and proposed to Nobel Prize Winner in Physics of 2004 Professor David Gross (Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, USA) and academician Akif Hajiyev, vice-President of National Academy of Sciences (Azerbaijan) to chair the second part of this section. Professor Gross has introduced the first speaker of this part of the working section Prof. Dan Shechtman (Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Israel) winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2011. Prof. Shechtman has presented a report titled ‘Current Challenges in Materials Science and Engineering’. He noted that many of the achievements are related to materials science. The development in materials science has reached such a rate that the evolution has led to a revolution. Also, there were some fields of industry, such as aviation or automotive industry, which cannot develop anymore by revolutionary rate because materials science today is not able to give them what these industries require. For example, it is now reached the limits of improvement the certain properties of metals, which play an important role in the structure of the aircraft. Possession of good material with potential application is not the solution. Because further we have to make the necessary alloys and such production is not only takes a long time, but still very expensive. Therefore, to obtain the necessary alloy for use in aircraft may be delayed for years. Next, prof. Shechtman gave specific examples of such materials and talked about the so-called compound titanium aluminum, the use of which in the production of aircraft jet extends for 40 years. He noted that the same problems exist in the mass production of electric cars. In medicine a similar problem with using stands for inborn heart defects of children when these stands in the early period work fine to open blood vessels in children. But, these children grow up over the years, and stands still remain on the previous scale. And then in adult children stand does not extend and in fact on the contrary constricts blood vessels, and this problem leads to death at the end, which is very bad. Other examples were shown as well. During the discussions, prof. Gross and prof. Shechtman discussed jewelry market and problems connecting this market with materials science. Next question was asked about the damage to environment using new materials. Prof. Shechtman asked a reciprocal question which of presented new materials in his report poisons the environment? He has listed his examples again, and said that, in his opinion, none of them harms the environment. Another question was asked about microdiamond-doped metals, which are widely used in high energy physics. Prof. Shechtman noted that most of the world’s diamonds are very small in size and they are used in many industries. For example, hardness of diamonds has used for digging tunnels. Generally, in the world there are many kinds of diamonds exist. There are plenty of them in the different private companies. But they have very clever strategic business behavior, that’s why these diamonds are slowly appearing on the market. Therefore, the prices of diamond products are always high. Prof. Gross made a remark that the same thing happens with the oil business and thanked the speaker for a very interesting presentation.
Debate continued by Professor Xi-Cheng Zhang from the Institute of Optics, University of Rochester (USA). He presented a paper titled ‘New rays? T- Rays!’. The speaker noted that the University of Rochester is a focus of contemporary American optics. Thence, 10 years ago, when the accident with the shuttle Columbia were occurred and seven astronauts were died, the group led by prof. Zhang has given the task to work on correcting of shortcomings of the shuttle lagging, which are the cause of the accident. Then, they have decided to use the terahertz frequency range between thermal insulation and aluminum body of the shuttle, because, terahertz waves can’t pass through metals. Prof. Zhang noted that the terahertz range is brand new and exciting science today. He substantiated his words by more detailed description of the properties and phenomena in the terahertz range waves. During the discussions, the director of the Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, prof. Nazim Mamedov (Azerbaijan) said that in addition to the terahertz frequency range, there are many other important bands in which you can achieve similar results. The question then arises as: which of these ranges is most important or what is the main range and others just complement it. Or conversely, may all ranges be equal? Prof. Zhang noted that the terahertz range have some differences, for example, can detect toxic substances etc., they also provide us with information about the presence of the primary phonons. Therefore, in his opinion, terahertz rays as well as X-rays, have complementary factors.
The last speaker in the working section of ‘Breakthroughs in Matter Explorations’ was Professor Konstantin Anokhin of the National Research Center ‘Kurchatov Institute’, Russian Federation, the report of whom was called ‘Cognitome: a Research Framework into the Matter of the Brain’. Reporter noted that he is a neurologist, and for the past 30 years neurology develops at such rates, that it has solved the most difficult problems associated with the human brain. And the term ‘cognitom’ was introduced by him to science a couple of years ago. Reporter further explained in details the meaning of ‘cognitome’ for the study of matter, which makes up the brain. Professor David Gross of Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (USA) commenting on the report noted that Wigner often said that in his opinion, he does not understand quantum mechanics and, in particular, the collapse of the wave functions. Speaker at the beginning showed the pictures, where the centers appear to be local, and it comes into conflict with the nonlocality of the networks cubes in the idea itself, and the speaker himself noted that, in principle, those centers are not non-localized but highly distributed.
With this report, the discussion on the working section ‘Breakthroughs in Matter Exploration’ has been completed and after the coffee break, the President of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, academician Akif Alizadeh (Azerbaijan) has invited Nobel Prize Winner in Physics of 1985, Professor Klaus von Klitzing (Max Plank Institute for Solid State Research, Germany) and Vice-President of the National Academy of Sciences, academician Ibragim Quliyev (Azerbaijan) to preside in the last section of the work of the round table named ‘Green Energy’. Prof. Klaus von Klitzing noted that the working section has 6 scheduled reports. Of course, these reports do not cover the entire problem as a whole, but they are dedicated to the most innovative ideas within the theme. After that, he gave the word to the Nobel Prize Winner in Chemistry of 1992, Professor Rudolph Marcus (California Institute of Technology, USA), who presented a joint report with Professor Maria-Elizabeth Michel-Beyerle from Nanyang Technological University (Singapore) entitled ‘Fundamentals in Harvesting of Light in Photovoltaic Devices’. Prof. Marcus noted that most of the report will focus on the collection of light and electron transfer processes, for which he have received the Nobel Prize. If analyze in details, you’ll find a lot of unexpected developments in the history of science. He listed some of these developments appeared in the XIX century. The solar energy can be used to produce other forms of energy such as electric energy, by using various techniques. One of these methods is the direct conversion of solar energy into electrical energy in an electrochemical device in which is necessary to use this energy instantly instead of storing it in the storage. The basic principle in all photovoltaic devices, regardless of whether they are synthetic or natural, is to collect light. The main process here – the process of ‘transfer of electrons’. Reporter described the occurrence of such processes in general and gave the example of solar cells sensitized by dyes that require liquid components to achieve high efficiency. He also noted that the large-scale use of such materials is currently developed. During the discussions, Professor von Klitzing and Marcus have discussed the similarities of the hot conditions in the chemistry with similar effects in semiconductor physics.
The second speaker in the last working section was Professor Su-Huai Wei of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory – NREL (USA). He has presented a talk titled ‘First-principles Design of Functional Materials for Green Energy Applications’. He noted that the computational design using techniques of first-principles of functional materials is one of the main objectives in the computational materials science. He has showed examples of how to use the computational methods to understand and create functional materials for energy, including photovoltaic materials, transparent conductive oxides, hydrogen storage materials, electrical or thermal energy, as well as materials for solid state lighting. During the discussions, prof. von Klitzing said that in the presented calculations he did’t take into account the sizes of quantum dots or wires. It is also very important for the design of materials. Round table moderator, Prof. Mamedov said that, by decreasing sizes, we have difficulties due to the penetration of photons in the structure. Therefore, we must find a way to recover the loss in this case. He does not think that this can be achieved only via computational design of materials. To this comment the speaker said that he agreed, therefore there are already different models that take the advantages of optics etc.
After this report, the presiding prof. von Klitzing gave word to the next speaker Professor Jerome C. Glenn, representing ‘The Millenium Project’ (USA). His report was entitled ‘New Efficiencies, Green Energy Technologies, and Energy-Collective Intelligence to help address our Global Challenges’. Reporter noted that in recent years the technology rapidly develops, the sizes reduce and exotic innovations appear such as nano-sensors or speech recognizers, etc. and all of these technologies are converting the natural environment to an artificial. He further informed the audience about some of the initiatives, such as 10-year American-Chinese initiative to study climate change, energy, sea water based agriculture, synthetic biology for hydrogen production using photosynthesis, etc.
The chairman thanked prof. Glenn for an interesting report and the word presented to Professor Lutz Metz from the Freie University of Berlin (Germany). He presented a talk titled ‘Towards a Green Energy System – Status and Perspectives of the Energy Transition in Europe’. Prof. Metz noted that there is an issue existing now that the huge demand for energy from the industrialized countries and the steady increase in demand for energy in developing countries must somehow be met in the future, and there is a discussion about: Can we replace fossil and nuclear power sources on a global level? Many European countries is in transition and replacement of the coal industry, oil, natural gas and nuclear energy by renewable energy sources (solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass) is taking place and energy efficiency rise is already happening. In short, green energy is the only long-term alternative for mineral fuel and has great perspectives for the future.
The next speaker was Dr. Kemal Oksuz representing Turkic Council of Americans and Eurasians – TCAE (USA). His report was called ‘Green Energy and Technology in the United States’. He also supported the previous speaker and noted in particular that now an industry in the United States relies heavily on coal, oil and natural gas in terms of energy consumption. It is obvious that these fuels are non-renewable, so their resources are limited and they will eventually shrink, become too expensive or will cause more harm to the environment during their production. In contrast, many forms of renewable energy such as wind and solar energy are constantly replenished and will never run out. Therefore, renewable energy is very important for America. Firstly, green energy technologies are clean sources of energy that have a much lower impact on the environment compared to conventional energy technologies. Secondly, the development of environmentally friendly sources, particularly renewable energy in America, is creating a lot of jobs, allowing to improve the local and regional economy, strengthening of national security and helping to stop global warming. Some of these technologies for use of renewable sources are already making an important contribution to the internal energy, and using by lots of local people. Other technologies are not used in large quantities, but also have a great potential to become part of the national energy supply, but should be improved for sustainability and environmental protection.
Prof. von Klitzing thanked the speaker for an interesting presentation and announced last talk of the round table. Professor Jörg Friedrichs (University of Oxford, UK) presented his report titled ‘The Carbon Curse: Are Fuel Rich Countries Doomed to High Emissions of CO2?’. He noted that the report was based on his recent work, published in the ‘Journal of Energy Policy’. Carbon curse in principle a new theory, but this theory is different from the resource curse. The theory is based that the development of carbon-rich deposits are heavily dependent on them, and is fundamentally different from developing countries without such deposits. The main problem is that the countries themselves produce a lot of CO2 during the production of hydrocarbons. Secondly, if a country has a huge amount of oil, the fuel displaces all other fuels in its economy. Thirdly, the large oil reserves allow to invest a large money in energy efficiency. Finally, the governments of oil-rich emit a huge amount of economically unjustified subsidies than other countries. All these is resulting heavily dependence on these raw materials of the oil-rich economies. Only the economy of Norway may be an exception.
In conclusion, the President of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, academician Akif Alizadeh (Azerbaijan) read a preliminary version of the declaration of the Third Humanitarian Forum and suggested to take this version as a basis with a few modifications, and thanked all the participants of the round table for fruitful work and announced about closing of the work of round table.