Etibar Najafov – professor. Baky Slavic University
Comparative Analusis of Models of Multiculturalism in Different States
Multiculturalism is a policy which recognizes cultural pluralism and promotes to it. It is connected with respect of rights of all population of a country not depending on their ethnic, racial, and religious differences. In a multicultural society all the citizens of the country have equal rights in developing their culture, language, traditions, ethnic and religious values, in opening national schools, in issuing newspapers, journals, and so on. The policy of multiculturalism leads to integration without assimilation. Therefore, it is widely supported not only by political elite but also by representatives of non-titular nations.
Theoretical basis of multiculturalism is liberalism, particularly such values of liberalism as freedom, equality, and brotherhood. Therefore, a multicultural society is a liberal society able to overcome not only social injustice, but also injustice based on racism. However, there is one essential difference between multiculturalism and liberalism. Unlike liberalism multiculturalism deals with rights of group of people, i.e. rights of ethnic and cultural groups, rather than rights of individuals.
Multiculturalism as a policy is also very close to tolerance by its essence. Particularly it is one of the most important features of a tolerant society, which proposes parallel existence of different cultures. As a feature of tolerant society multiculturalism promotes mutual enrichment of cultures, it leads to penetration of one culture into another, to further formation of culture uniting people.
Multiculturalism is one of the varieties of reaction to cultural diversity, existing in a society. Besides it, we can note other varieties of reaction to cultural diversity such as isolationism, assimilation, and apartheid.
Unlike the above-mentioned methods, multiculturalism is such a variety of reaction to cultural diversity that is supported not only by a dominant ethnic group of people but also by newly-arrived ones and even minorities. The given specific feature of multiculturalism makes it a positive phenomenon which ultimately promotes development of society.
The process of formation and development of multicultural society was determined by peculiarities of historical development, concrete societal factors. It should be noted that democracy played a crucial role in the process of formation and development of multicultural society. Particularly, democracy had been necessary for the given process as well as sufficient conditions. It is not occasional that multicultural society came into existence first of all in the democratic states of Western Europe and North America. High level of tolerance, pluralism, and democracy in these states created favorable conditions for spreading ideas of multiculturalism there.
Taking into consideration the above-mentioned fact that formation and development of multicultural society was determined by peculiarities of historical development of a concrete society we should note that due to differences of the historical development of states there were different models of multiculturalism. Among its most specific models I’d like to note American, Swedish, Australian, and Canadian models.
a. American model of multiculturalism.
Up to the middle of the 1960-s the USA was imagined as a “melting pot”, which combined Anglo Saxons (ethno cultural base of the American nation) with immigrants. In the given “pot” the Anglo Saxons were in the dominant position. After that the situation substantially changed. The “melting pot” program was substituted by the ideology of multiculturalism. As the main reason of the change, I can note, was the adoption of 2 important laws- “Law on Civil Rights” in 1964 and “Immigration Law” in 1965. The first law weakened the Anglo Saxons factor and provided equality of nations. The second law accelerated immigration in the country.
Today in multicultural policy of the USA we clearly see the acceptance of the values of the American society by immigrants on the one side, and the lack of ethno cultural homogeneity of the American society as well as formation of supplementary mechanisms preventing ethnic and racial extremism, on the other side.
b. Swedish model of multiculturalism
The Swedish model is based on the active role of the state in conducting the policy directed to preserve cultural diversity. Such an active position of the state in Sweden has been related to the ruling of the Social- Democratic Party, which has a strong social policy. In 1976 the Swedish government allowed foreigners to vote. “Law on Immigration” (1997) identified Sweden as a multicultural society.
The policies are directed to urge immigrants to study the Swedish and native language. Thus, the Swedish government considers cultural diversity in the country as a reality which should be preserved.
c. Australian model of multiculturalism
The formation of multicultural society in Australia was preceded by the policy of isolationism pursued by the government. “Law on Immigration”, adopted in Australia in 1901, and served as a legislative basis for conducting the policy of isolationism by the ruling elite. The situation began to change with the adoption of the following legislative documents: “Law on Citizenship” (1948) with amendments, “Law on Migration” (1958) with amendments, “Law on Foreigners” (1984) with amendments and “Law on Visa regulation” (1997) with amendments.
It should be noted that the introduction of the term “multiculturalism” into political lexicon is connected with the name of Al Grasby, minister of Immigration of Australia (1970). He did very much to overcome the hostility between the Anglo Saxon population and new Australians. In 1979 the government founded Australian Institute on Problems of Cultural Diversity, in 1987 – the government established the Committee on Problems of Multiculturalism. These measures of the Australian government played a very important role in successful evolving of the immigration policy of Australia from pro-racist to multicultural policy.
d. Canadian model of multiculturalism
The formation of multicultural society in Canada has begun since the 1960-s. The Canadian government believes racial, ethnic, confessional diversities of the population to be the basic national feature of the Canadian society. It means that multiculturalism is one of the most significant national peculiarities of Canadians. Multiculturalism is protected by the 27-th clause of the Canadian Charter of Freedom and Rights.
Unlike the USA and Australia, in Canada there was never a crude assimilation by an ethnic group having a dominant position. Canada is indisputably to be a multilingual country. All members of ethnic communities have rights to use their native languages including the right to teach it. As a result of this situation ethnic minorities of Canada preserve also their cultural and mental peculiarities.
Thus, as a result of a comparative analysis of different models of multiculturalism I’d like to make some generalizations:
Olga Astaphyeva – Academy of National Economy and state service attached to the President of Russian Federation
Dynamics of Ideas of Multiculturalism in the Strategies of Cultural Policy.
Pleased to welcome all the members of the Humanitarian Forum, discussing such pressing problems not only for Russia and CIS, but for the whole world, as they relate to the problems of coexistence under the difficult conditions of social and cultural changes. Those changes that alter the understanding of space and time, the meaning of life, which very often causes us to reconsider its proximity to their home culture and to seek for contact with other cultures.
The idea of intercultural dialogue is becoming central for modern unstable and changing world.
Dear colleague board freed me from having to return to the semantic concepts of basic terms and categories, that we work with today, it is the category of multiculturalism, which is difficult, but being opposed in the forms of different models in the world today, that can be adapted to only one country but can be quite applicable to other conditions, because it takes any model centuries to be trained and searches of these grounds for the use of a particular model are the most complicated tasks, representing an agreement on common strategies of the world the concept on coexistence of the world with a specific concept of their own ethno-cultural and national-cultural development.
The problem of coexistence is a problem which is in search of a strategy of cultural policy in this world. But, in my opinion, the concept of cultural policy today is much broader, because all the problems, we are discussing now, are associated with a particular manifestation of their own cultural identity and merit of culture. They very often come across with the problem of communication of the social order conflict. The issue of multiculturalism is an interdisciplinary problem, the problem of sociocultural statistics in today’s world, when social inequality coordination attempts to step out of this social inequality. They still come up against the cultural inequality that generates conflicts. Perhaps, it precisely leads to the fact that adapting models in some countries as you mentioned, are not complied in other countries. And criticism of political assessment of appearing, most of all, makes us see multiculturalism in a different way.
What does in a different way mean?
First of all, it’s necessary to understand that we are analyzing multiculturalism as the only possible strategy, or as one of many strategies, characterized by a trend towards democratization of environment of free interaction and of establishing cultural pluralism.
Certainly there arises a problem connected with the stability of the concept of people’s culture. If a cultural environment was prepared as a poly–cultural, polyreligious or a holy professional environment, long ago, then all the other processes of entering other cultures into this environment become quite local, how to say, to possible. This is a process of natural expansion of cultural diversity. This is a complication of wholes. And, I think, this is a characteristics of complication of multiculturalism models and very important today. In this sense, I think we need to review the concepts of adaptation. Adaptation becomes not a mere process of culture in the area of other cultural values, but also a process of certain transculturations, it is when not only similar cultures are accepted, but also the other ones, which could absolutely never been regarded as cultured as to be open for dialogues. That’s why; the problem of adaptation is a problem of searching tools of modern universities that would help people become adapted in difficult situations.
Respected Yefim Yefimovich said yesterday that one of these tools of course, was the education system. In my opinion, except education system, the situation of building a Civil Society that we speak about very often, also offers building certain new expert platforms. Like these expert platforms social organizations and unities set out.
Review of national and cultural autonomies in Russia, new interpretation of possibilities of uniting cultural and informational values in the territories of all countries in the modern world allow a person to own a small angle and not being isolated from their environment to get to now, all the values of their own culture. This is just the kind of model unity of differences, when each culture saving its own merit and cultural values absolutely interacts with other cultures out of the conflict environment. To succeed in it is very difficult today, as we have already noted that social problems affect the status of each person and problems of existence in the world.
What does discussion platform mean? One of them is an analytical material, which presents every country open for a lot many to other nations in all the situations. The fact is that in such kind of methods and methodology, materials almost don’t exist. There is no unified conceptual methodological basis of analysis of interaction of cultures on different grounds.
Linguistic diversity is one of the ways to solve this problem – the problem of adaptation through modern informational and cultural networks which are being created. By the way, one of the most interesting forms of people’s adaptation to the modern world, which is to keep in touch with their family, and to preserve this relationship, which allows them not to be separated from their new reality. This new situation, which just changes the understanding of migrations, when labor migration really becomes a temporary one, rather than the deposits one that new migration in their new territory.
I would like to say, that concept of multiculturalism in today’s Russia, has also undergone a serious scrutiny. Creation of such locus of friendship here and locus of intercultural dialogue will be interesting. Take our Orenburg region, which is the border area and which, today, in terms of population consists of 180 to 200 representatives of ethnic and cultural traditions of different cultures. In this area a wonderful experience of the national village is created. It is the space of total area with information museums and centers; it is possible to meet with other cultures and within the same territory to carry out common activities. It is spread so only in Russia, just avoiding isolation, and trying to communicate are interesting ways and means of complicating the model of multiculturalism with the aim of establishment of forms of dialogue. Analyzing the Russian experience, I want to say that still every year 200 thousand people come to Russia. They have different cultures, but the same traditions as Russia has. And it may serve as the basis for the strategy of etnocultural policy has been positive. And all these situations of aggravation with whom we have a place and this open platform, will of course find their positive solution.
Ivan Palchev – former ambassador of the Republic of Bulgaria in the Republic of Azerbaijan (2004-2008).
Multiculturalism in Action; Bulgarian ethnic model.
Ladies and Gentlemen, not all of you know that in Bulgaria there are more than one million Muslims. It is eight hundred thousand Bulgarian Turks and two hundred Bulgarians who converted to Islam during the reign of the Ottoman Empire. In the early 90s when most of the initiators of Europe cross-examining the Slavs and when asked them where the ethnic conflict started on Balkan, and got response “in Bulgaria”, because the degree of ethnic tension at that time reached its intensity, because in the mid-eighties, the government of that time changed the names of our Muslims from Arabian-Turkish to Slavic ones. They were forbidden to speak their native language. But even now most of them speak their native language. Though it sounds strange, for example, if two Muslims spoke Turkish in the street policemen stopped and fined them. For Muslims it had been made difficult to perform their rituals in mosques. In a word, the situation was tense and reached its peak in 1989 when mass strikes and escapes from prison began. In order to control the situation the communist regime expelled four hundred thousand Turkish citizens from our republic. But it removed the tension for only a while because once struck up a change in Eastern bloc and the situation began to hit up again. Then the president of Bulgaria was Dr. Zh. Zhelev. He was for the solution of the critically developing conflict because our constitution protects all the personal rights of our citizens. But we went further and allowed Muslims to create their own party that would be defending their collective rights, the rights to live and freedom that were committed in the early 90s. During these twenty years there has always been permanent representation of our assembly, but it is interesting that the representation of our assembly began with twenty-four deputies but there are thirty-six of them now. Twelve out of these thirty-six deputies are Bulgarians because now even ethnic Bulgarians vote for this party. In the elections there were one hundred sixty thousand of them. From the first steps of this new party all the other parties shouted not to allow terrorism, not to violate the constitution, but everyone knew that all it was necessary for taking the situation under control. Of course, there was a risk but it was justified. Before convening of the parliament, all the issues were resolved. And all the problems with the names of our Muslims, problems with our Turkish origin citizens in troops were immediately solved, their right to pray in the mosques was legalized, it was allowed to learn the language at school and it eliminated the tension. In five years the party had already started to deal with the issues which were important for society as a whole. It was already dealing with not only their own ethnic problems, but it also became one of the parties of Bulgarian political spectrum. And I hope just this was called the Bulgarian ethnic problem. I hope that this example of our inter-ethnic relations can serve as a role model for many other societies who have the risk of tensions on an ethnic basis. Thank you!
Fesenko Vladimir – the Center of Applied Political Investigations of “Penta” (the Ukraine)
The Ukrainian Experience of Constructing Interethnic Interaction in the Context of Building an Independent State.
Thank you very much! First of all, I would like to thank the organizers of the forum for the nice initiative to discuss the whole specter of humanitarian problems, which are very actual for the contemporary socially global independence. So, of course, we are thankful to you the opportunity to participate in the very forum. If we speak about the Ukrainian experience in the field of culturalism and about policy in the sphere of international relations, first of all, I’ll give a brief characteristic of the specification on the Ukrainian culturalism. The case is that the Ukraine externally looks like an ethnically homogeneous state. According to the statistics of 2001, 78 per cent of the people are ethnic Ukrainians, but the Ukrainian ethnic community itself is not homogeneous. One half of the ethnic Ukrainians in our country speak their mother tongue, but the part of the Ukrainian community are Russian speaking and were formed by strong influence of Russian, Soviet cultural and political borders. There is a big, I’d say, mega minority – they are ethnic Russians. They comprise nearly 17 per cent of the country population. At the moment of creation of the independent Ukrainian state it was even more than about 22 per cent, but the Russian – speaking population of the country, are the people who call the Russian language as their mother tongue is, 30 per cent of the population. But in fact, there are two spoken languages in the country. Nearly one half of the country population use Russian. And the rest are national minorities, except ethnic Russians, they make 5 per cent of the country population. But some of these minorities are compactly settled in different regions of the country.
For example, the Crimean autonomy is dominated by ethnic Russians. It is the only region in the country, where the Ukrainians are not the majority of the population. There is a Crimean-Tatar community living there actively and in a well – organized way with their particular problems. In Zakarpati there is a Hungarian national minority compactly concentrated, in Chernovid region, called Romanians and Moldavians. And I would like to mention even one more specification of the Ukrainian society –this is the professional pluralism. We have three competitive churches among us- provoslav churches, which have their own regional areal of impacts. There is a catholic church, which has quite enough effect on the Southern Ukraine. And as usual there is a protestant religious community. In the Crimea and Donbas the Muslim community is actively enough. If we speak about international relations in the Ukraine, first of all, I would like to mention the fact that we have characteristic ethno cultural, ethnic, language, professional differences between separate regions of the country. It makes not a simple case, especially in politics, which affects the social and political life of the country. The second important problem is characteristic for not only the Ukraine, but also for many other independent countries, at the same time, in the territory of the former- Soviet Union. This is a contradiction between the required national integration and supply of cultural language rights of the national minorities. How to connect the national building and guaranteed rights of minorities? This is a problem, which often arises in the political debates. The specific problem of the Ukraine from the early 90s – is a separatistic moods among the Russian – speaking population in the country. Moreover, among the Crimean-Tatar community, has been very popular and is still remaining, so the national territorial autonomy. Hot to connect the efforts of the Russian community to the national territorial autonomy in the Crimea. It is also a difficult problem. I am not already speaking about the social and economic problems, deported people of the Crimean Tatars. And of course, at last, the most serious problem of the 20 – year independence duration. It is social and political contradictions for a suitable status of the Russian language in the Ukraine. Which were the most important, and are the key tasks of the state policy in the sphere of international relations in the Ukraine? The task number one, is surely, taking into consideration the heterogeneousness of the Ukrainian society – this is a formation of the unique Ukrainian political nation. The second important task is to provide equality of Ukrainian citizens’ rights of different nations and at the same time to confirm international agreements in the Ukrainian society. From the very beginning, one of the most important tasks of the ethnonational policy was to provide the conditions for functioning of the Ukrainian language as the state language in all the spheres of social life under simultaneous building for saving improvement conditions for education and realization of the cultural requirements and, of course, taking into consideration the problem of Crimean Tatars returning back. And the important task was social adaptation, integration of the crimean society, persons, deported due to the national principle. Of course, the important task is the prevention of ethnic and racial contradictions. It is important to mention, that during the first years of independence, right basic of harmonic international society had to be provided. In 1991, the law on citizenship on the basis of so- called “zero real” was admitted. All the people who lived in the territory of the Ukraine, got citizenship. We didn’t have any problems. Before getting independence in1989 the law on language which again guaranteed the language rights of national minorities was admitted. In 1992 the law on the national minorities in the Ukraine was admitted. In the mid- 90s, the Ukraine ratified the European map of the Germanic languages, but besides it from the very beginning a unitary character of the Ukrainian state was fixed in the constitution of 1996. One state language, one citizenship excluding the autonomous status of the republic of Crimea. But what softened the situation? I would pay more attention to it. The leading role here played soft social and cultural political environment. First of all, the cognation of the Ukrainian and Russian languages played the most important role. The majority of the country population speaks both languages. There is no contradiction of the interlanguage communication. Secondly, from the very beginning, the political elite was provided to be open for the representatives of national minorities. The Russian speaking part of the population of the country took an active part in the formation of the new political elite of the country and no differences were observed regarding ethnic features. The positive role also played the democratic character of the political system of the Ukraine, which gets rid off unnecessary pressure in the political sphere, and doesn’t allow it to amass and explode. Soft and firm ukrainization of the state, of education system services and information services were held in the country. The policy of European integration of the Ukraine plays in favor of consolidation and development of the rights of national minorities. The important role is played by national cultural societies, representing the interests of different national minorities and also state support of some state minorities and separate cultural and educational projects of national and cultural societies. You know, nowadays in Europe, and in many parts of it, and in post Soviet countries, some radical movement of rights is observed. The vast majority of Ukrainians refuse radical movements of lefts as well as rights. It must be mentioned that, the soft and flexible ethnonational policy of the Ukraine gave its results. The Ukraine is one of the fewest post soviet countries which is characterized by the absence of massive and severe international conflicts. We never had any serious seperative problems and there was no war in our territory. If in the early 90s about half of the country population feared international conflicts, as they had witnessed the conflicts in Moldavia as well as in the Caucasus, now only 12 per cent of the population is afraid of international conflicts. We don’t have national discrimination, only 3 percent of the population mention facts connected with national discrimination. I would like to mention once more (but it may be a very positive tendency), though there is multi cultural pluralism – that is the occurrence and reproduction of the main ethno cultural differences. The only problem of unity of the country is still remaining very actual for the Ukraine. Unfortunately, a good number of politicians are trying to use the problemacy of the national identity, as well as the international differences of the activities of the political parties. That is why; challenges for harmony of international relations are still remaining in the Ukraine. But I would mention one more implicit problem which doesn’t come into view yet, but it is a potential problem. This is the tendency of strengthening of national distance of ethnic isolationism of separate national communities in the Ukraine. And I think, the positivness of the Ukrainian experience, is the national policy which is concluded in the softness and flexibility of the decisions of sometimes very opposite tasks in the sphere of national relations that gives an opportunity to harmonize international relations in the country. Thank you!
Leonid Slutski – the Committee for Foreign International of the Russian Federation
Problems of Multiculturalism and Political Practice of Modern Russia
Thank you. I am very glad indeed, Dear Efim Iosifovich. Yesterday my friend Ilham Heydar oglu Aliyev, the President of Azerbaijan, at the opening ceremony of the forum said that today’s forum is rather a celebration of multiculturalism, and I would say that a little bit differently: today’s forum is the celebration of inter-cultural, and interconfessional dialogue; which is taking place in the territory of an intercultural and interconfessional country, which has definitely made great advances. As for the expression of “multiculturalism”, used so commonly today, I would be rather careful. One of the main items, often discussed at such round-tables, is the compatibility of such criteria as democracy and multiculturalism. One opinion has become very popular lately: “the more homogenous the society is, the easier it is to create democratic institutes, and vice versa, the more complicated in culture the society is, the more there is difference between nationalities, the more difficult it is to create democratic institutes”. The concept of multiculturalism is traditionally opposed to the concept of “melting pot”, when all the nationalities are assimilated into one. This has already been mentioned here today by the first speaker – the representative of Baky State University. The thing I would like to mention in addition about the USA, which is thought to be the biggest “melting pot”, is that in the USA one can come across with means of social interaction, which are more characteristic for international European politics; for instance,affirmation, the system, introduced in the 60-s, which was planned for only one generation, provided definite prerogatives for minorities when entering educational institutions or accepting for a job. The reason of initiating this system has the confirmation that unequality in the society prevented Afro-Americans from the same rate of development, and a little “acceleration” will bring them to the same level with the white people.
But it turned out to be not so simple in practice – the program failed. But today, after more than 40 years, affirmation was not only retained, but established as a permanent action program. Meanwhile, the promised equality was never reached, but vice-versa, the white population, is in more unfavourable situation now. I think this program is, to some extend, humiliating for those, whom it is supposed to help, because actually it affirms that they are underdeveloped for achieving their life goals themselves. The affirmation could have attained only anything, of an opposite effect. Accustomed to permanent aid, minorities have indeed forgotten now how to use their own force and head, and this phenomenon is always progressing. This refers not only the USA. It is enough to look at Europe, where immigrants, living separately, are urbanizing in full pelt. There is no motivation to work, no motivation to measure up with generally accepted norms of behavior and morality. The knowledge they gained in their historical homeland is quite enough for them to exist normally. And it is fairly reasoned that Germany, France, and Great Britain afterwards, first announced about the failure of multiculturalism policy, and then proceeded from words to action and tightened admission, especially it refers the immigrants from North African countries. Thousands of refugees from Tunisia tried to get into France through Italy, but French authorities, in spite of all the documents, stopped the trains on the borders of the country, and moreover the demands, made on the passengers were only economic. It was necessary to affirm their having enough means to take care of themselves within the territory of the “Fifth Republic”. Those immigrants, who didn’t have the means, were decanted from the train. The Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded with a formal protest to France in view of “suspension of International Railway Service”. However, the Italian diplomats were not heard even by the European Union. EU Commissioner for Home Affairs Cecilia Malmström acclaimed that Paris acted within the law on behalf of enhancing population security. Consequently, the problem is so serious, that it is taken to be so even in the European Union. At this stage, Dear Gentlemen, I’m placing emphasis on several approaches to the multiculturalism policy. The first scenario is “integration without assimilation”, i.e. refusal from building a mono-cultural country due to lack of prospects or a failure of this kind of efforts, followed by the rise of recessionist sentiments; multiculturalism is used here as a constitutionally legal execution of the refusal and, faith at the same time, which is possibly the combination of the widest “cultural pluralism”, of the unique national and state integrity. This is the Canadian model. You know perfectly well, how this model was implemented in Canada. The second scenario is the scenario of “reverse discrimination” (“discrimination of discriminators”): achievement of interracial, interethnic, interreligious equality by means of eliminating historical and social injustice and discrimination, exerting particularly in divergence between demographic structure of the society and its social strategy; stake in this scenario is usually placed on “affirmative action” (franchising and promotion which make compensation for the discrimination) (the USA model). Then comes the scenario of “functional tolerance” which happens in cases when the government invites and accepts foreign manpower on a time basis, which depends on economic situation; however, migrant workers do not get civil rights in full value, but they can work and live preserving their “identity” (The German model). The last scenario, whereby I think the multicultural basis can be laid out, is the “exchange” scenario, aimed at improvement of the exterior image of the country and immigrants intake for eliminating manpower deficiency; in this way the government encourages the immigrants’ inhabitation preserving their ethno-cultural differences upon condition of their loyalty and adopting the core values and principles of democratic society. (the Australian Model). Canada, the USA, Germany, Australia – 4 different models. All these models were worked out in the 60s-70s. This was the time, when liberal-minded Europe needed something to counter with the pretty much religious Islamic World, Islamic expansion of Europe. The idea of common tolerance and assimilation appeared to be ideal at that time. It attracts a great many of foreign employees, and, at the same time, it doesn’t deprive other people of their rights and freedoms. Eventually it turned out to be not so simple. Apparently the most effective in my opinion is the last of the four scenarios. Australia processes its position on legal and illegal immigrants rather rigidly and consistently. “Do you want to work? – Be able to work in a team. Welcome! No? – Go away to your homeland. We do not have a lack of manpower.” This is not possible in the case of Europe and America for several reasons: Europe faces a choice – either to maintain the rate of attracting new manpower (demand – hundreds of thousands of people each year), or to lose, that, coupled with the depopulation, leads to political and economic degradation. If they began solving this problem a little earlier, when the number of Muslims didn’t reach a tenth of the indigenous population, this problem could be possibly solved in this way. However, today, when tens of millions have already ingrained in France and Germany and were granted citizenship, these political cavalry assaults cannot solve the problem. The situation is even more difficult in the United States. Here happened to be an image of a giant national guilt before Afro-American population, therefore the policy of affirmation allows the white population to feel to some extent safe. And they would not give up this practice for no reason. It is convenient to all politicians to use it for demagogic purposes. Thus, the more there are different religions and nationalities with their unique, unwilling to adapt, cultures, the more difficult it is to traditional democratic institutes work. They have no problems in countries with young population. In case there are tough actions from the government, it would not be accused of racism and xenophobia. Let’s recall the recent riots in the United Kingdom. How has the British police not been called by federal media; and this despite the fact that they did nothing much, they were just upholding the law. But most of the immigrants have their own view on the law, often different from the one, set in the Constitution. We can recall Patriarch Kirill’s words, the head of the Russian Orthodox Church, who spoke on the fiftieth anniversary of the Russian Peace Fund (I have the honour to lead the Russian Peace Fund), and compared modern multiculturalism with a cocktail. “Various components are poured into a glass, – the Patriarch said – to make a cocktail, however, you have trouble shaking it, there are components, but no cocktail. Perhaps, you should not have poured them? It is impossible to make an Anglo-Saxon from an Arab or a Turk, even it takes much trouble.” I would add for myself that the cause of the collapse of the European multiculturalism model is the antimonies of the laws and norms of the Old World. It was not punishable that new residents didn’t fit into the traditional way of life; in some cases they were even encouraged. This situation has the other side of the story – increased popularity of right-wing parties and sentiments. In case when the acting government is unable to cope with the influx of immigrants, the forces, who promise their assistance to people, appear in the political arena. Elections are in full blast in the Old World, and the situation is heating up each year. All these began in France, where extreme right wing, headed by Marine Le Pen, showed surprisingly good results. The next was Finland, now comes Germany. On the territorial elections in Wurttemberg the rights cleared the 5 percent barrier (I am concluding). This, I think, could be the greatest danger, worse than the failed multiculturalism, and the logical consequence of the theory, which showed how dangerous the modern European nationalist idea is. The failures of the policies of France, Germany and England reinforce the extreme right-wing parties. I think it is time for the leaders of these countries to reflect and solve the problem immediately; otherwise it may be too late. I hope the leaders of the Old World countries won’t be armed with this somehow outdated political model, which multiculturalism is in its current form, in today’s understanding. Thank you!
Boris Morozov – Tel-Aviv University (Israel)
Multiculturalism and Problems of the Modern Middle East
There is a difficult task before me to talk within 8 minutes about multiculturalism in such a country, where there are people speaking 81 languages from 120 countries are living; where religion is not officially recognized separate by the government, where there is no formal constitution, and which is always in state of war with its neighbors for the latest 60 years or so. So, you should believe that we have very many problems. But, nevertheless, we have experience of multiculturalism, sometimes it is combined, sometimes forced, but we have been living in such a society for already a long time, for about one hundred years. Our “boiler” has not been the same as in the United States. It has its own specification and I will not dwell on the issue now. Such specification was caused by the fact that the people arrived then in Palestine had a very strong objective and motivation. And since they were ridden by a single purpose: to live in a new motherland and to create a new community there, as well as to implement socialistic ideas – so, they started to form a new man, a new Jewish empire. Doesn’t all this really remind you the post-Soviet time? The slogan of the Jews to speak in Hebrew resulted so that such Jewish Multilinguism of peoples coming from very different countries has been managed step-by-step, and peoples have really started to speak mainly Hebrew. Certainly, very large extremes were made in the period of planetary boiler and pseudo planetary boiler. And such a curious problem as today’s relationships in Israel, being catastrophic, became absolutely principled for even Palestinian Jews themselves after the war. They asked: “Why didn’t you come earlier or why didn’t you fight?” The matter resulted in arising very serious contradictions between East European Jews who arrived from Europe, and the Palestinian Jews who called themselves hot outside and soft inside. In the 70-s, after the war in 1967 to be exact, when multiculturalism concepts started to develop all over the world, they gradually reached Israel, too. And the first swallow of multiculturalism was rather a small English-based community arrived from the USA and Great Britain. So, was unexpectedly found out that these people wanted to save their language not refusing studying Hebrew and settling in a new place willingly. And these people were supported because English was already considered to be a language of international communication that time. They made up a compact dwelling district by building a city of their own named Granauf where they live now, but there are other compact dwelling districts in Jerusalem. Perhaps it was the first case of refusal from the governmental policy of assimilation, I would say: it was the transfer to new models – to the model of integration without any assimilation. But it turned out that practically this experiment was carried out in expatriates from the post-Soviet space or exactly from the former USSR in the period started in 1988. Ex-speakers told then that every year nearly 200000 men come to Russia, to the country where already 147 mln. people live. During 10 years 1100000 expatriates have arrived in Israel from the CIS countries that are about 18% of population of the country in whole. I think, that no country can boast the experience of admission or, as it is said in Israel, absorption of such a large percent ratio of foreign population. Moreover, this community, arrived from other countries was very original and drastically differed from all the previous emigrations. First of all, these people arrived here, but having saved very good relationships with their former motherland because the Soviet Union had already collapsed at that moment, and nobody prevented their departure, and they were leaving having saved friendly relationships with their colleagues and relatives. They were not considered to betray their country in the 70-s, so, when they came to another place they didn’t lose relationships with the left motherland. It seriously stabilized the formation of Russian-speaking information space in Israel. Just believe, it is practically not grand for such a little country where we are. Today, 1100000 population is provided with 2 Israeli TV channels in Russian, over 30 newspapers are published in Russian, and there are 6 radio stations in Russian. The Russian speaking population, whom I will further call as Russians to be short, different with a very low level of religiosity, although this issue is extremely difficult and should be discussed separately, it is an absolutely sigulant community, they are people among whom due to the laws of return, allowing the third generation of Jews to come back there were about 30% out of all these people arrived. These are people who had some baggage; I would say, Soviet baggage, they felt as citizens of a great country and absolutely didn’t want to be the second-grade citizens in their new motherland. They faced some difficulties with local population, but all the conflicts have been settled within 10 years. And today, it is very interesting that Israel has become quite different and the Russian community has become completely different, too. It is interesting that today all the Russian classical literature in Israel has been translated into Hebrew, and all the Hebrew-speaking classical literature is being translated into Russian. You can find literary works by Abus Vos, and Shalem in your bookshops. Multiculturalism has worked. We have become different, and Israelis have begun to treat the Russian-speaking population as a part of Israel. Today, when Russian sportsmen present Israel in international competitions, it does not surprise anybody.
Irina Kunina – senior teacher of the Chair of “Diplomacy and Foreign Policy” Baku Slavic University
Multiculturalism in the Caucasus: the Azerbaijani model
Well-known political events of the late 20th century should have led to the formation of new models of multiculturalism in the post-soviet space , including the republics of the Southern Caucasus. But a number of military, political and economical events led to the deformation of the existing balance of interethnic relations in Georgia. Mass deportation of the Azerbaijanians and ethnic minorities from Armenia have led to a state when this republic has become an actually monoethnic state. The Azerbaijan Republic, in its turn, managed to overcome the tendency of disintegration and to be still a country which unites different cultures and religions.
What is multiculturalism? First of all it is a strategy of a democratic state aimed at achieving a particular “quality” of culture interaction in one country. This quality is generally recognized as peaceful coexistence based on the tolerant attitude to different cultures. It is a fact that Azerbaijan is very tolerant towards different views, customs and traditions. Tolerance to peculiarities of different peoples, nations and religions is mentality of Azeri people.
Azerbaijan Republic is a polyethnical country. Its population is represented by state-forming Azeri people and autochthonic national minorities such as Udins, Ingiloys, Krizes, Hilalugs, Budugs, Tats, Talishs, Lezghins, who do not have any other native lands but historical Azerbaijan and therefore together with Azeris they can be considered to be members of a single polyethnical Azerbaijanian nation. Besides them, Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Kurds, Jews, Greeks, Assyrians, Germans, Tatars also live in Azerbaijan. These folks has their own historical native land and because of that can be considered to be allochthonic ethnic minorities living in Azerbaijan. Over twenty different cultural communities function in Baku. They are Russian, Ukrainian, Kurd, Lak, Lezghin, Slavic, Tat, Tatar, Georgia, Ingiloy, Talish, Avar, Meskhetian Turks, European Jews, Mountain Jews, German, Greek and others. The number of such kind of communities in the whole country is much larger. They exist in almost all regions where ethnic minorities live compactly.
Azerbaijan Republic is a polyethnical country. Representatives of many ethnoses which have unique peculiarities live here, preserving their own tangible and intangible culture, language and self-identification, historical memory and mentality, ethnical consciousness and ethnic psychology.Just here one can see settlements of Mountain Jews-Krasnaya Sloboda (Red Village) and pleasant molokans –Ivanovka Udin village Nidj, village Khinalig ,which is famous for its language ,peculiar customs and traditions ,and as well as terns of other settlements of representatives of various nations ,which have become part of Azerrbaijan society.
Etnical minorities have equal rights with the local population in the field of culture and using cultural heritage of the country.
The Native language is taught in primary forms of comprehensive secondary schools situated in the areas where ethnical minorities live compactly. There are curriculums and textbooks, collections of folksongs and poems, fiction literature in these languages, newspapers and magazines are published in these languages, state national theaters and amateur art collectives.
Cultural symbiosis existing in Azerbaijan and diversity of traditions are ingraved in the framework of activities for preservation monuments of tangible and culture museums of Astara, Gakh, Guba, Zakatala and other districts organize expositions which reflect heritage and traditions of ethnical minorities living in this territories. Libraries, the funds of which include books by representatives of ethnical minorities alsso work effectively in this field.They hold presentations of these books.
Historical memory of Azeri people keeps itself stages of passage through three religions – Zoroastrism, Christianity and Islam. It is also a very significant factor for establishing balanced intercultural communications both in the country and on the international arena. A specific model of tolerance and interconfessional dialogue was formed in Azerbaijan. This model is an example for other polyethnical regions in the world. In the framework of the contemporary model of state and religious relations, all the confessions got equal status and are equal from the legislative point of view.Along with ensuring rights of Muslims which are the overwhelming majority of the population in the country, the government also takes care of all traditional religions spread in the Republic.
Here I would like to specify examples of Azerbaijan policy aimed at satisfaction satisfy the cultural and religious needs of the citizens:
Speaking about interethnic relations in our republic, followings should be noted: Basic positions of the national policy are set forth in the Constitution of Azerbaijan, which ensures equality of all its citizens irrespective of their ethnic, religious and racial belongings. The concept of national policy of the Azerbaijan Republic is based on such international documents as “Universal Declaration of Human Rights” passed by the UNO, “Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms” adopted by the Council of Europe, “International Convention of the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination of UNO”, “International Covenant of UNO on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights”, “Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe”, “Document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension of the OSCE”, “Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities” passed by the Council of Europe, “CIS Convention Guaranteeing the Rights of Persons Belonging to National Minorities”. The state document dedicated to the national policy of the Azerbaijan Republic – decree of the Azerbaijan President “On the Protection of the Rights and Freedoms and on State Support for the Promotion of the Languages and Cultures of National Minorities, Smaller Peoples and Ethnic Groups Living in the Republic of Azerbaijan” was adopted as well. In other words, protection of national minorities is one of the main orientations of policy pursued by the leadership of Azerbaijan. Thus, a special organization, headed by the state counselor on national policy, has been established in the presidential apparatus. There is a similar structure in Milli Majlis.
Having equal rights and opportunities provided by the Constitution and laws, representatives of various nations work efficiently in different spheres of the society and make a worthy contribution to the development of the country. Thus, national minorities are presented in the government and other state bodies of the Azerbaijan Republic. In the national parliament of the republic – Milli Majlis, there are representatives of various ethnic minorities of the country, including Russians, Lezghins, Kurds, Tats, Talis and others. During the parliamentary election of 2010, observation mission of the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights found out that there are no problems in the question of participation in the elections of the ethnic groups living in Azerbaijan.
Thus, all possible conditions have been created, and are supported in the republic for the existence of ethnic variety. However, it should be noted once more that the cultural variety is perceived in our country not as a mere combining of various identities, but as a beneficial environment for the development of national solidarity uniting all them. In other words, it is considered as wealth and property of Azerbaijan, which is the common home for all its citizens irrespective of ethnic, religious or any other belonging.
The text of verbatim report was provided by Baky Slavic University.Second working section
Dreus-Silla Gezina – University of Türingen (Germany)
Cultural Transformations between two Worlds
Thank you very much.
Dear ladies and gentlemen, I will try to explain how work cultural trends between two worlds. The word “world” implies entity with ontological dimensions. Cultural theory had shown that any ontology, any construction, blames another one’s cultural monologue. The construction method of deconstruction is a stable gambler of ontology. But this prevents creating ontologies from taking them for granted, from perceiving their reality and shaping the walls according to them for the own social and cultural practices. But for instance, no culture is monological; no culture is an unchangeable entity with any kind of natural rights. So we have two poles in discussion. On the one hand a notion of fluidity of constant changes, of constant cultural exchanges, on the other hand, one of the cultural practices. Multiculturalism as far as I can understand is a connection between these two aspects. By most observation the prefix– multi implies the coexistence of at least two accepted entities imagining culturally common theories. The terminology implies target contamination but that does not take into consideration the existence of the corrupted structures that also come along with coexistence of its several entity perceive cultures.
What do we, as culture historians, do to investigate cultural and domestic exchange between these principles of constructions? Now to find out its destructive forces that lie within ontology can be prevented. We can deconstruct its start explicitly, including investigation of power relation, for instance. In other words, what we need is the investigation of how successfully multiculturalism can be achieved by looking at the processes between cultures. From the point of view of cultural historians this must be investigated both in successful and unsuccessful meetings of different cultures by looking into the process of translation. I would like to present, for example, such a successful cultural translation between very large worlds: the West African Cetedalists and the Russian world. I’ve taken my example from literature and films. In 1972 Cetedalists director Gauli made a filming adaptation of famous plays of Russian culture. The Russian Cultural historical theoretician Yuri Hoffman developed a model to explain cultural dynamics. It must be a problem that comes along with cultural context that has been opposed to the prototype. And in his reading the rude community of the play can not cope with the new cultural paradigms that stand before or between reforms. This results in corruption, it is a particular example. So the play is not a comedy, but a qualitative culture that aims at disclosing the problems that come along with these contents. It’s another cultural content example of the process of translation that influencesAzerbaijannot only by culture but also by time. Good translation of exact dimensions forgets the play could be opposed by the Cetedalists society. In order to explain the problems of corruption that cause violent contest in the Cetedalists society and in French colonism which was a very violent contest. So we have the situation which is a successful cultural translation how to disclose problems that can arise from cultural content that violently mentioned. It also shows that there is no such a thing that discloses and translates culture and peace because we can always find connecting elements in the various expressions, which of course, I did, in supposition giving all problems to encounter with people coming from different ontologically constructed problems as though into world cultural space. Thank you very much
Alexander Ebanoidze – Magazine «Friendship of the people» (Russia)
Magazine experience «Friendship of the people» as a practice of multiculturalism
Being presented as the editor-in-chief of the magazine «Friendship of the people» anticipates that I want to report to our meeting, what I mean under multiculturalism. I head many years this magazine which well-known in due time as a city magazine, actually worked for granting multiculturism. This magazine «Friendship of the people» prosecuted many years’ subjects of internationalism which determine activity of this magazine. For 72 years the magazine has stored the richest experience which is interesting and in discussion of that problem we now concern to remarkable idea and efforts of organizers of this meeting in this direction. In 90th years this work has been a little suspended. Unfortunately, at this time there were some difficult factors. If the magazine circulation in 1991 constituted one million 487 thousand copies, now – it is no more than two hundred thousand copies. This “collapse” of circulation is connected with publishing house practical activities: production, paper, mail, transfer have risen in price, etc. The generation of people has grown which cannot be represent to themselves what the high-class literary magazine was the magazine of «Friendship of the people».
Many consider that if the Soviet Union has broken up, the former commonwealth is not present. However, fortunately, the time passes, gradually the dramatic and psychological condition of society changes. The literature takes an important and essential place in the society still therefore precisely transfers internal character of these or those people. It is necessary to tell about these moments. I think that the function of literature in the permission of a problem of Russian multiculturalism is wide and various. Also it is necessary to protect and keep this function, as those years when on the basis of internationalism the magazine «Friendship of the people» was created. Then there were very great and purposeful work, for example, on creation of schools of a literary translation from languages of the former Soviet Union. Here there is remarkable Kazakh poet Oldzhes Sulejmenov, the representative of one of schools, in a sense a product of this work. Undoubtedly, creation of school of transfer was the great ideological and cultural contribution to art. But it is necessary to find new possibilities because disappearance of this translational school means rupture of all both intellectual and spiritual contacts. It is impossible to admit. I believe that we have heard yesterday the emotional performance of Michael Efimovich Shvydkoy. In December at Institute of philosophy it also has brightly acted during an anniversary of Merab Konstantinovich Mamardashvili, the most interesting philosopher. M.E.Shvydkoy has told that similar intellectual level of such height is a big rarity. Michael Efimovich has found possibility through the state fund to sponsor the conference devoted to the 80 anniversary by M.K.Mamardashvili.
As it is necessary any quantity of silver in the human body not to degrade and broken up this organism so in public mind must be considerable and high level culture. Sociopsychology notice that intellectual level of society in general has very much gone down for last decades. It is necessary for supporting of literary magazines business and business relationship on professional literary. Undoubtedly, the literature continues to bring the serious contribution in multiculturalism, in mutual understanding. It can carry out this function with advantage and henceforth, and including that magazine about which I spoke. Thanks for attention.
Koitiro Matsuura – Former General Secretary of UNESCO
Thank you, for giving me the floor interrupting the presentation about multiculturalism. I was the director of UNESCO for last ten years. Therefore, I’m very happy to secure international efforts led by UNESCO in order to promote multiculturalism in today’s world. At the opening ceremony the president Ilham Aliyev stressed the importance of promoting multiculturalism. And everybody agrees, and I agree that the major question before us is how to do it. And I listened to the partners’ presentations very carefully, particularly one of the partners is from Azerbaijan who explained what kind of concrete steps have been taken in Azerbaijan to promote multiculturalism. That is very crucial. In my judgement, there are two things that must be done in order to promote multiculturalism. First, it is necessary to preserve rich cultural heritage: tangible and intangible. Secondly, it is important to promote every step of the contemporary cultures. Two things must be done: an international remove and an uninternational remove.
I remember well enough I made my first visit toBaku,Azerbaijan, invited by the president Heydar Aliyev, in April, 2000. And at that time Azerbaijan did not have any wrong heritage. But since then two local sides have emerged inAzerbaijan. First, the role of the city of Baku and then Gobustan that goes up under the 1972 conventions of the UNESCO.
In order to be inscribed, it has two requirements: one is that sight has outstanding euro style but that is not enough. The second requirement is, there is a management plan to preserve that outstanding universe of value and the role of cities of Baky and Gobustan have to build these two requirements.
That’s why, Azerbaijan now has to preserve important tangible heritage. I would like to give another example perhaps, you have visited Mugham center in the center of Baky. Mugham is now a masterpiece of a tangible cultural heritage under the 2003 convention of the UNESCO. Intangible heritage is traditional dances, traditional songs, traditional ceremonies, very important ceremonies of public cultures. And there must be tangible and intangible heritages in order to promote multiculturalism. That must be done and UNESCO had established two important international conventions. There are Convention bylaws or the states that have ratified the interhomage, because Azerbaijan has ratified it and under 70, 80 conventions have ratified the role of convention itself and under 87 countries had ratified a lot of information.
So, it is important to promote a national impulse against the background of international members of convention established hand in hand. National impulse must go hand in hand with an international impulse. And I’ve mentioned that the second item important in multiculturalism is contemporary cultures. And UNESCO also established a very important convention in this area in 2005 in the form of the international convention on the promotion and preservation of diversity of the country exploration. It is a bit complicated but is designed to promote every step of contemporary cultures. But it is firstly important to establish and promote different contemporary cultures in many countries. Primary objective of the 2005 convention is to promote such contemporary cultures. I don’t like to spend much time, therefore I’d say once again stressing the number of the presentations made in the session what kind of national efforts we made to promote multiculturalism. But it is equally important to recognize the importance of the international efforts. National efforts must go hand in hand with international efforts. Thank you very much.
Dr. Alpay Ahmadov – Baky Slavic University
“GYMAOC” Initiative as an instrument of multiculturalism process
One of the topical and fashionable theories often causing hot debates among the scholars of social sciences is the role of civilizations in the development of human consciousness, societies as well as states. After Samuel Huntington’s well known article, then book titled “Clash of civilizations” this theory is on the agenda of the leading scholars as well as decision-makers. In fact, recently one often faces incidents caused by religious hatred, particularly attacks against the symbols of Islam. Unfortunately the phenomenon Islamophobia in its turn leads to Westernophiboa that in fact doesn’t meet the interests of Muslim world.
Youth for Alliance of Civilizations (YAOC) project initiated by the Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue & Cooperation, an affiliated institution to the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation, in 2007 is a youth dimension of the United Nations’ Alliance of Civilizations (UN AOC) Programme in the youth field as its priority area.
The center-piece activities of the “YAOC” Initiative, namely “Alliance Youth Camp” and “Intergenerational High-Level Conference” was held on 28 October – 2 November 2007 in Baku, Azerbaijan hosted by H.E. Mehriban Aliyeva, President of Heydar Aliyev Foundation, UNESCO and ISESCO Good Will Ambassador.During the course of implementation of this Initiative a pool of high profile names in academia, arts and social activities trained a 45 young leaders from Western, OIC and Asian countries gathered in “Alliance Youth Camp” in historical, political and socio-cultural aspects of interaction between different civilizations as well as in issues related to diversity and richness of cultures in the West and the East. In April 2011 in Baky this movement was institutionalized by establishment of Global Youth Movement for AOC (GYMAOC).
The main goals of the Project are to create for influential decision-makers an innovative atmosphere of intergenerational responsibility and to impact their way of responding to the need of bridging divides and overcoming the prejudice as well as to present youth view both at personal and institutional levels vis-à-vis the idea of Alliance as well regarding means and ways of carrying out the Initiative.
One of the vital components of this movement is so-called Youth Mobile Respond Groups consisting of youth leaders representing different cultures and religions who will be prepared to contribute to the process of crisis solution created by religious or cultural phobia. In perspective well-trained groups are planned to be sent to the conflict zones in any part of the world with the aim to put an end to the conflicts.
Certainly the GYMAOC can’t be considered as a panacea to solve the problems connected with misunderstanding among the representatives of different religions and cultures. Taking into consideration that youth is much more vulnerable to negative ideological trends, the GYMAOC is claiming to play a significant role in youth activities to end this. At least this movement aims at the establishment of a sustainable dialogue of civilizations that could result in their alliance against misunderstanding, misconception and extremism.
Thank you for attention!
Hassan Hani Muhammad – Iran, Imam Sadig University
Multiculturalism to the epoch of globalization: opportunities and problems
Dear Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, It’s my great pleasure to be at this very great event and I had a very great chance and opportunity to share my views with you and of course, to learn from you. I am sure that you are tired, so the problem will be to the point and I’ll be very short. My paper deals with globalization opportunities and challenges. Culture and cultural tourism is a resource for interacting among the nations. Culture is a challenge of relations between nations, across the world, prevents confrontation between nations and brings the diversity to the nation and humanity. From the very history up to now the age of globalization and culture has remain as an access of bordershop. This paper is an attempt to elaborate challenges and concentrates on controlling of challenges, which are brought by diversity of culture clashes. It argues that perception tendency had practice. It seems to be one of the main challenges. Culture gives a chance to exchange all the culture resources and establishes understanding among people and relations and it eliminates the causes and the roots of conflicts and wars. This is a way which is the most significant and most realistic to control the conflicts.
I would like to begin with this, that multiculturalism is necessary and why? My answer for this question is – yes for the following reasons: firstly, because it is a requirement of it’s natural exchange, among the nations; secondly, because it will be accepted across the nations, between societies and among civilizations; thirdly, because it is a requirement of a revolution; then, because it will promote peace and peace between nations and even eliminate the rules; then, because it will encourage tolerance and understanding among the nations.
Of course it’s not an easy job, so all this requires a lot of willingness and an enormous effort and patience: the first way of achieving good results is also awareness of profits and benefits of culture exchange and there are some more ways to achieve them. The second way of achieving multiculturalism is moving to the direction of the co-regional way. The third way of achieving this, is by abrupting common policy. Mechanism of the fourth way of achieving multiculturalism is the role of international organizations such as United Nations, according to the last achievements, through establishing permanent forms, holding the international symposiums, in different parts of the world.
There are also some challenges, such as the tendency among so many countries to perceive culture as a means of winning and it is sad, but it’s true. And there are some conditions we need to take into consideration to overcome challenges and to use culture benefits properly.
This tendency might the reason to denote multiculturalism and eventually stop the national process of interaction among the cultural world. So the cultural identity is the serious issue.
Thank you very much for your attention.
Etibar Babayev assistant – professor Baky Slavic University
Transformation of Values in the Modern Period in Comprehension of Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism means “many cultures” in English. But can many cultures exist in one society? If yes, then that society is doomed to die, because in this case, it loses its identity that is happening inFrance,Germany,Holland,Belgiumand some other Western countries. If we need such kind of “multiculturalism” or “many cultures” in its western interpretation, then it will take us to degradation and catastrophe, and to losing all the great valuable strata, that were gathered by many generations of our people.
Today we can see the return effect of it – this multiculturalism has put the great western civilization close to abolition. We can obviously see two contrasts in the meaning of this term: First the meaning of multiculture is spoken about as “cultural equality, saving peculiarities in an ethnically heterogeneous society”, but then comes absolutely different postulate – a demand for “the intermixture of cultures for their interpenetration, enrichment and development in universal values”. Because the conception “equality, saving peculiarities” itself contradicts the words “ the intermixture of cultures for their interpenetration, enrichment and development”.
I think, that western intellectuals themselves haven’t decided with the exact notion of multiculturalism yet. Every politician or intellectual sees different ideas in this term, in accordance with their political views and pre-election situations as well.
Nowadays leaders of western countries, people who once aggressively carried out the global policy of multiculturalism, refuse their creed and words with grief as it had happened in September, 2010. The president of France N. Sarkozy, the chancellor of Germany A. Merkel, the prime minister of Great Britain J. Cameron publicly renounced the politics of multiculturalism, which was once very popular, stating the fact of its complete defeat and danger for their society.
May be it will sound strange, but I think that the term “multiculturalism” was devised by western technologists in answer to soviet phenomenon –“multinational soviet culture”. Tens of professional Sovetologists had studied this unique phenomenon for 70 years in the West, often not being able to find reasonable explanation to it. This, by the way, became one of the main factors for the appearance of the term ‘homo soveticus’. So was called by the sovetologists the man like this, having inexplicable qualities for western pragmatic or rational way of thinking.
Now I’ll give you two examples of absolutely irrational approach from Western point of view, two lessons given to the world byRussia:
The year of 1919. Civil war, starvation and poverty Is all over Russia. The majority of population is illiterate. Everything, country, and most important of all-culture seemed to have been lost… And at that time on the initiative of M. Gorky the Library of World Literature begins to publish.
The second fact: the 19th October, 1941. Blockaded Leningrad. The city, covered with snow, has no bread, light or heat, the heading German army already begins bombing the center of Peter. But at that very moment celebrated the jubilee ceremony of the great Azeri poet Nizami Ganjavi in the Hermitage building, where sounded the famous seventh symphony by Shostakovich. The political administration of Leningrad front allowed the oriental reporters to leave the main front from Pulkovo and Kolpino for a day.
Such kind of self-sacrifice of the intellectual and cultural elite was the main factor that allowed the country to become one of the two world powers, to win the World War II, to send the man to the space first, to send unmanned spacecraft to the Moon and Mars, to build the atomic energy station, to invent laser technologies.
Multiculture covers not only music or literature; it is also a public phenomenon, that transpierces all layers of society, influences politics, the system of state governing, economics, public life, science and so on. Azerbaijan culture, as well as Russian or other cultures of former Soviet republics, has been the product of “multi-national Soviet culture” during 70 years. National cultures of the former SSSR peoples were formed as self-sufficient, due to their harmonic interaction. However, we Azerbaijan is could save our national peculiarities and cultural wealth and enrich our traditional national values. Those cultural and national valuesthat is lost in the term “western intellectual thinking”. Nowadays western intellectual thought loses these cultural and national values.
Azerbaijan and Russia, their history and culture are the best patterns of mutual enrichment of cultures, taking place more than thousands of years before the appearance of the term “multiculturalism”. Azerbaijan, as a region has undergone great influence of Persian, Arabic and Russian cultures within thousands of years. And we can proudly speak about our mugam, music, architecture and culture.
By the way, the Russian Federationis the only country in the world that gave the Azerbaijani language the status of the state language in its territory – in the Constitution of Dagestan Republic the Azerbaijani language is the state language.
I am not the adherent of “multinational soviet culture”. But we simply can not ignore the fact that this system was working and working quite effectively, until it was destroyed under the totalitarian system. At last, the soviet phenomenon of “multinational culture” became the stimulus for western analytics, who thought a more wonderful and perspective alternative – multiculturalism, in their opinion.
There were a lot of shortcomings and mistakes in the Soviet system, but under the influence of the idea of great traditions of public education, the thoughts of Pushkin, Chernishevskiy, Dobrolyubov, Belinskiy, Gertsen, the government could develop both the national elite in the outlying districts of the Russian Empire and set up the middle level of educated people from other nationalities. This situation by-turn prevented cultural disbalance as it is in Europe now.
The architectural ensemble “Icheri sheher”, is the best example to the interaction and interpenetration of cultures. It was listed by UNESCO as a monument of cultural heritage, where all the important historical events took place and unique architectural decisions were realized. So not far from the Maiden Tower there is Shiite mosque, Lezghin mosque and a Christian church. Just near the MaidenTower there is St. Apostle Vorfolomew’s chapel, which was one of the 12 apostles of Christianity and according to the legend, was killed in that place. It was long before the appearance of “multicultural soviet culture” and before “multiculturalism”. We simply lived in such a way, our people and our culture became the synthesis of different ethnic and cultural streams and waves. Tens of nationalities and ethnic groups live in our country nowadays. They all have the rights for their cultural and national self-expression.
In the epoch of globalization no country seems to be able to escape the influence of multiculturalism. But a developed society has to answer on the great changes adequately and will save its national and cultural values from deep deformations.
Aysel Gutigyanova – Kazakhstan Responsible Secretary of National Commission of Kazakhstan for UNESCO
Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, first of all, let me express my gratitude to the organizers of this forum on behalf of the National Commission of Kazakhstan for UNESCO and make a special stress on the high level of its preparation.
Everyone would like to mention that Kazakhstan will always support Azerbaijan and Russia, because of cultural, historical and linguistic heritages connecting us.
The theme of the round table also integrates our common aspirations in the context of “multiculturalism” policy, which came to us at the cost of historical preventions and became an analytical result after a twenty-year-separation of large fraternal country.
Dear friends, today we are living in a society, which doesn’t accept any alternatives for new civilizations and cultures, which are founded on principles of tolerance and respect. Today it is the most important condition for better understanding of the processes around and working out effective measures of modeling. I think that such authorized organizations as UNESCO and ISESCO have to play a global role in the promotion of the ideas of peace and harmony among nations and encouragement the cultural diversity.
These organizations have all the necessary resources and instruments for social unity and improvement of cooperation among nations for total respect to races, sexes, languages or religions without distraction. Such kind of activity is the best guaranty for saving peace in the world. At the same time we have to remember that everyone must make an effort to build the economic world and develop cooperation among nations, living there. The main task for every state is to explain this goal to the citizens and to bring up a new tolerant generation. The international peace and harmony is the result of everyday policy and practice.
I think that most of you know about the activity of Kazakhstan in the direction of harmonization of cultures and civilizations both in the national and international levels.
During the years of independence our country established an effective legal foundation of international and professional equality. They are the rules of religion and language freedom in Kazakhstan.
The most important step became the doctrine of national unity. The Assembly of Kazakhstan nations transformed in the institute of international agreement. The structure of this assemble includes 820 ethno cultural consolidations. Astana has been the center of global interprofessional dialogue since 2003.The idea of making world more tolerant gets practical personification during congresses of world leaders and traditional religions that took place on the initiative of Nazarbayev N.R. in 2003, 2006 and 2009.
One of the latest initiatives of Kazakhstan was the forum on harmonization of cultures. It was successfully carried out by UNESCO last year and allowed the world to see the problems of mutual understanding in a different way. This actual call caused a very wide challenge among the UNESCO countries. Nearly thousands of events, dedicated to the international harmonization of cultures were held throughout the world. It shows that the modern world, stuck in conflicts, needs such kind of projects.
We think that a good impulse and a universal message have to be spread on the next global activity of the world society. And I want to announce the decision of the Republic of Kazakhstan to carry on the agenda of the next session of general conference of UNESCO, the question of declaration of the decade of international harmonization of cultures from 2013 till 2022.
I want to call all the officials, sitting here, to join this suggestion supporting co-authorship in this project. I think that the timely initiative will become stronghold of the world society in the next decade to spread the dialogue of cultures in the local national and regional levels.
Ladies and gentlemen, unfortunately the real callings of new time don’t allow to see the future of multiculturalism with much confidence.
Anxieties concerning the complication in interethnic and interreligious relations are a problem of many regions of the planet.
Today, we can watch the rising religious and ethnic intolerance that is revealed in violence to religion saints and burning holy books, also in offending temples and tombs and arguments about what religion is right. All of it happened in the past, but is still going on today.
In different countries more radical methods of keeping national identity are used. Such kind of reaction to globalization touches upon the interests of many ethnic migrants and minorities even in the highly developed countries. That’s why mutual offences, interethnic distance and distrust to each others among people are rising.
Today in many European countries the policy of multiculturalism is failing, so that there is a tendency to refuse the policy of multinationalism and multiculturalism.
I remember the words of great hakan thinker Abay, who said: “Heralding hour is the darkest”. It is important to remember that multiculturalism is the worth of the world, but not the monstrosity. Consonant and constructive intercultural dialogue is based on common values and aspirations.
Arsel Brass – ANSAR (Pakistan)
Thank you Mr. Chairman for allowing me some time to speak about the model of multiculturalism a few minutes and its problems in Pakistan. As you know, from multiculturalism in the sense of biculturalism, Muslims and Hindus could not live together in the United India, and separately we achieved our independence which meant that we had 5 existing cultures, major cultures which were legalists pushed to politicians. That is, we began cultivating in mono-cultural group as Pakistani culture or Muslim culture that had been united in highly position which was about at least bicultural idea ofIndia.
Then we studied proficiency because we could not accept cultural activity of Pakistan and we even had a special argument that God is one, a leader is one, our book is one and a language should be one.
By 1973 we were able to make a constitution which somehow recognized the national groups and their cultures, and it became the foundation of Pakistan having at least 4 existing cultures and brought them back. In between we had our military rulers and with the support of fine powers fearing our separate strength of Eastern linguistic groups we studied a bigger role, played by our neighbours, especially in Afghanistan.
But in 14 years, I am coming to that achievement, that last years we had an amendment after the restoration of fulfilling democracy in Pakistan and that amendment had a great power in our century. It has become an era of hope for Pakistani people and its neighbours, too that we are totally going to recognize some cultures, major cultures which mean that with legal cultures we can live together in peace and we can promote multiculturalism.
We become closer and we can make all other border cultures along with us and make a more multicultural state. But we still have problems, problems are of those people who are fundamentals, who believe in culture and who in the name of Saudi Arabians, impose not only uniculture on us but also on their diarism that has been a shape of new kind of diarism, that imposes a certain language on us, certain cultures on us. But with the help of our people and the government and the armed forces we are trying to reign with that but we have made small achievements in that notion. Thank you.
The text of verbatim report was provided by Baky Slavic University.Third working section
Zhelyu Zhelev – Former President of the Republic of Bulgaria
XXI century – where our world is heading? For unipolar or multypolar model?
Ladies and Gentlemen! Good or bad, but we — the older generation are the children of the twentieth century, and it left its marks on us. We was brought up, has got education, beliefs, measure of things, in that bygone era, but there is no doubt that it is as ashes of the Claass still ringing in our hearts. I often find myself thinking on that fact that putting the date of the document or article automatically start with the digits of nineteen hundred … – but it is already two thousand and eleven. And my peers have shared that it happens with them too. The twentieth century has formed our views defined our values.
Therefore , it is risky to assess the twenty-first century, attributing our positions, values, achievements and failures to it. Of course , coming the century will be the continuation of the achievements , successes and technologies of the past century- it was also when the twentieth century replaced the nineteenth. Who could have imagined in 1850 , that humanity will reach the splitting of the atom, that the electrical energy will make life easier for people, and at same time will serve to destroy the human race — atomic bombs will destroy more than one city. And the consequences of their impact on human health are still being felt. In the nineteenth century, mankind could not imagine building space rocket, launching them into space, outputting a human being into space and pictures of our blue planet from the Moon, moving the probes through the Solar system with information about the Earth. So , the invention and development of communication tools were unbelievably impossible ; phone, which is in your bedroom or in your pocket, that connects you within a few seconds with the area through oceans, and aircrafts with thousands of passengers on board flying higher than birds all days and nights, in rainy and snowy weather at large distances. This is the paradox of progress that the impossible becomes possible and the possible becomes an everyday reality. I mean , one day , may be, the twentieth century will also seem so naïve and ridiculous in the eyes of twenty-first century thinkers , especially for their attempts to create new men and new society through the implementation of totalitarian doctrines of fascism and communism. Although the internal logic of the thing is that without any democratic means you can’t implement democratic goals. At the contradiction between means and ends discrepancy occurs. Then nondemocratic tool pulls out democratic goals, and it becomes the target and the initial tasks disappear like smoke. I say otherwise, concentration camps for dissidents, gas chambers, eavesdropping and denunciation, deportation and genocide of entire nations is not conducive to building a just free and democratic society, conversely get the crowd of obscurantist without a hint of morality.
It would have been one-sided to characterize the twentieth century only as the power of totalitarian regimes of fascism and communism and evil which it brought to mankind. Alongwith the fact that it was the most inhuman, cruel and bloodthirsty , it was , at the same time, a controversial century, the most creative and the greatest age. We must not forget about the major scientific discoveries, and advances in science and technology, culture, literature , cinema and art. The 20th century is marked by such a powerful eruption of scientific knowledge that it can only be compared with the era of ancient Greece when there were formal logic of Aristotle, Euclidean geometry, physics of Archimedes, and philosophy as a systematic exposition of knowledge rather than individual maxim which were called philosopheme. In the 20th century new discoveries and sciences were born which overturned our understanding about the physical and outer world where we live in. We are talking of the Einstein’s special and general theory of relativity, of Neil’s Bohr quantum mechanics, the logic of Bertrand Russell, cybernetics of Norbert Wiener and others. In the 20th century so – called hybrid sciences , such as, astrophysics, biochemistry, biophysics, biomedicine, geochemistry, molecular biology and others appeared. Combining heuristic possibilities at the intersection of two disciplines, they open up new horizons of intellectual baggage and elevate it to a higher degree of cognitive power.
In connection with it, we should mention both non-Euclidian geometry, concave hyperbolic hyperbole in which the sum of interior angles of triangle is less than one hundred eighty degrees, and Riemann’s spherical geometry where the sum of these angles are more than one hundred eighty degrees.
In fact, these two geometries are not of the 20th century. They appeared in the previous nineteenth century , but their real influence and power is revealed in the 20th , widely using them in research and submission of space and subatomic world. It was a century of struggle for freedom , for national liberation, civil and political freedom of the individual, human rights. In the early twentieth century, more precisely at the end of World War I, empires began to disintegrate; one after another collapsed the Austro-Hungarian, the Russian, the Prussian, the Ottoman, and soon after the World War II, the British and the Third Reich. So that many people got a chance for national liberation and unification. There were dozens of many states and later on, the colonial system of West in Asia and Africa broke up.
All this could not fail to bring the world organization to life which would guarantee equal rights and control the relationship between the powers on the basis of the generally accepted international law. So there was UN- United Nations, replacing Community of Nations.
It is hard to say, that the twentieth century entered the history as the most inhuman and bloodiest. So many people were never killed before with weapons, gases and radiation, as during the years of the first and Second World Wars, Bombing Cherosyma and Nagasaki, disasters in Chernobyl.
It was the XX century that created two wildest political movements of totalitarian regime as communism and Nazi regime.
A number of years ago one of the western publications demonstrated the list of evil political geniuses of the XX century. The first place was dominated by Mao Chze Duna within fifty million of killed Chinese. After him was Stalin, within forty million of victims/ there’s a rumor that the number was decreased. In the third place was Hitler, who caused twenty million of killing innocent people. After them — Chan Kay Shee with ten million victims and Lenin — within four and a half million victims.
According to me, the names of Pole Pot and Geng Saree who caused death of thirty six million Combojians must also be included into the list. And now I want to draw your attention to the fact that the list is not headed by the person who invaded Europe, German Nazi leader – Hitler, but by the communists, with their reformations of Chinese and Soviet nations. May be , the opportunities of well- equipped communism repression machine are wider than the ones of Nazi regime. It’s not a chance that it dominated in the Soviet Union seventy extra years, but Nazism in Germanyonly “some” twelve years three months and six days.
But let’s have a look at the present century, to the beginning of the XXI century. We already have quite different priorities. The mankind mainly suffers from saving the world and ecology, struggling with new illnesses and protecting human rights. After the collapse of the evil empire –the Soviet Union – the borders have broadened, migration of people has improved, the number of mixed marriages has significantly arisen, and new generation successfully grows, the people have eliminated the prohibitions, the Internet dominates the minds and time of millions of people. It has been necessary for some small countries to unite according to the principles of mutual beneficial trade and security, trust and equal rights. A great deal of years ago the prominent Azerbaijani poet Nizami Ganjavi wrote of it : “A day passing without friends can be worse than sadness. His heart is full of grief who hasn’t got a friend.”
With this idea I want to show the main and most important question for us — how the European Union will improve and result. Can it unite the countries in such a level that they could be strengthened by a union of foreign policy – at least, as the main demand of modernity, and besides for a unique struggle as a giant “player” of a union rule – independent from its name and form: federation, confederation, union or some other organization. I again use enough popular word “call” and it’s undeniable that the same project “European Union” is huge widely spread and it’s not easy to be controlled. It doesn’t look to the establishment of empire, as it doesn’t use responsibility and pressure, there can’t be metro fields keeping under his power provinces. It’s not acceptable to compare it with the creation of the USA, because here enters the countries with thousand years of history, with deep culture, religious, military traditions; and not the migrants by chance who invaded large territories and populated there only 200 years ago.
That’s why it’s difficult, if we can say impossible to maintain the integration of the EU in such way as the unity would act as unique governance, and not to decrease the sovereignty of its members – not any of them will agree with the limiting significance. At the same time the EU wouldn’t be interested in limiting the rights of member countries, as neglecting our differences will mean to neglect political, cultural and military inherity ofEurope, gained not only for hundred, but thousand years. Here, every time the problem would be overlooked again for investigating suitable and security maintain of differences.
If we return to the theme “How will be the XXI century – monorside or monorside “the only one thing could be prognosticated: it won’t be double side. In the past one hundred years period the model of equipping the peace in the world, contradicted himself, because on its base stood military – political and ideological resistance, that ended with bloodshed wars. In the beginning of the century Antanta and the Triple Alliance lost the war after subgroupping several communities in two antagonistically blocks. And the Second World War collapsed the unity of governments not only inEurope, but also in other continents. There formulated two more blocks – Nazi axis and anti-Hitler coalition. As I reminded the result of that confrontation ended in bloodshed wars.
The course of “cold war” is also the result of two formed structures: NATO andWarsawcontract. We are lucky to be the witness of this unbloods war finish though it created nuclear weapon and long-range missile in both groups which could destroy the mankind.
To may own mind, there are more chances in minor side model. Significantly appears several strong “players,” steps the first plan of the political scene; besides the USA and China Brave challenges give Russian Federation – which has so many natural resources, modern Armours and practice in the cosmic sphere. It’s necessary to remindIndiawithin more, milliards population and flourishing economy and technical progress!
The youngest one in this “play” is European Union within 500 000 000 population with economical resources on the map and perspective width.
It’s said that EU is an economical giant and political feature, and it’s true. These “scissors” are seen even by unarmed people’s eyes, away from the politics. Who and when interested with the attitude of EU concerning both political and unpolitical matters? Who would take into consideration this attitude?
Nobody. It’s so because every country – member of EU has his own mind, and they often differ. For example to the question “Should Turkey become a full right member of the EU?”GermanyandFranceanswered “No.” The would be supported by Greece.Great Britain said “yes.” The USA is not a member of the EU, is also “for” this candidate. Turkey was supported by Bolgaria, Romania and of the Balkan countries.
Mainly, accepting Turkey as a member of the EU put a question in front of the politicians and rulers of the old continent about the future of the union that nobody has any clear idea.
If even they want to end this topic, it doesn’t mean that the problem has disappeared. As a variant, appears a new terminology here, as a “long – term of acceptance period” and its aim are to define for this problem uncertain period until when he’ll refuse himself from his candidate post.
There are also some direct refuses of acceptance Turkey to the EU. As France president Nicola Sarcozy and Counselor of Germany Angela Merkel – some Austrian politicians. But after them there’re not any fundamental fats, proves. Why? Not a long time ago former president of France – Iyskar d’Esten suggested to amend a low which says to ban accepting as a full right member of the EU countries that population over’s 5 % of the whole EU countries’ population. And nowadays the population ofTurkeyis 50 million people and it means automatically reduce of Turkey and the Ukraine from the list of Candidates. And I don’t say, if Russia would like to be a member of the EU one day.
After all these researches and discussions clearly seen fear of giant European countries mainly France and Germany – with the competition more strenghful countries that represent more share of deputy members, and it means that they can affect strongly to the solution of the problem and aim of direction in the EU.
But these facts don’t have any supports. They are supported by the thought that in the EU, there are not “right”, “lefts” or “medieval” and the deputes rote compactly over the nationalities. But it’s no so.
I think European Union will be widened and Turkey must be its member.
Let’s think what Turkey will bring to the EU with its membership.
Can you name any other country who can bring so many benefits, as I showed above, only by a membership maintaining. I can’t remember any other one. Then, it can be Russian Federation– if once he will realize to be able to take all responsibilities while entering the EU and give his candidate. Besides, I hope, the European Union won’t hesitate whether to acceptRussiaas a member as far as the Urals, or farther as Vladivostok, because the most widespread natural enrichment locates mainly in the Eastern part of this country. And at this time the way to the realization of ideas given by general de Gaulle, then occupied by Michail Qorbachov “Europe from Wancoover to Vladivostok “ will be proved. Because, the European Union first of all, is economical, political and cultural. Its geographical location – is only the point to begin the integration, but its present content consists of economical and political reforms. They will make our countries more democratic, with a successful market economy and at the same time with the progress of humanitarian potential.
I’d like to confess that I can speak much more on this theme. But I’m afraid one of the participants will remind me the bright idea by Alisher Navoyee: “The truth of the speech is good and fluent. But how beautiful it is to tell the truth in short!
At the end of my speech I thank you for attention!
Zumrud Guluzadeh – Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Multiculturalism: Methodology of Investigation.
Evolution of scientific cognition stipulates the expedience of discussion and correction of both methodological principles of scientific investigation and imagination of the notional apparatus of the science.
Taking into consideration the level of the audience and the time limit for reports, I would like to focus on some actual problems demanding much attention.
The choice of multiculturalism as an object of investigation and addressing to methodology of its investigation is connected with:
Dealing with problems of theory and history of spiritual culture more than fifty years, especially with history of philosophy of different regions, I was based on the theory of dialectical materialism for about thirty years, which is known to have the most serious preferences in search of scientific truth.
Within the latest decades, basing on the possibilities and achievements of the comparative approach to the history of world philosophy and achievements of modern science, which is, in my opinion, possible as the general philosophical methodology of interdisciplinary researches, the conception of general unity, based on simultaneous existence and the unity of both ideal and material foundations. Besides it, combination of this methodology with methodological principles, so called “non-exact logic” and comparativity are more suitable for the conception.*
Basing on the above – mentioned principles, I suggest as the object of the discussion the interpretation of a number of questions connected with multiculturalism, which, probably, need some corrections in their definitions and estimations.
Definition of “multiculturalism” concept is included into this group first of all. Notions “culture” and “multiculture”, expressing a historically universal phenomenon of globally social and cultural development have always been and are now still remaining as the objects of “metaculturology”, history of culture and other sciences. But the concept “multiculturalism”, expressing the attitude of state politics to culture of peoples, who live in its territory, but are not “titled” nations, has recently been included into modern scientific and political literature.
Initially, as a part of political ideology and real political practice, the concept of new time multiculturalism was oriented to the definition of political and legal norms. These norms guarantee tolerant coexisting of ethnos with different cultures, mentalities, economical and political status, populated in Western countries. So, these countries proclaimed, that they were influenced by the principles of humanism, democracy and observance of human rights independently on his racial, ethnic and confessional belongings. Certainly, this coexistence shouldn’t have shown negative influence on the stability of political and cultural principles of these states.
But, gradually, because of regular development of modern western countries, and widening of many-sided crisis in this region, the content of multiculturalism, as the political ideology and real politics underwent serious transformations. It was the reason, that multiculturalism was rejected. Many declarations by the heads of western governments, former initiators of this policy affirm this fact.
Basing on the above – mentioned points, we can say, that in scientific investigations, connected with problems of multiculturalism it’s necessary to pay much attention to the following questions:
So, solvation of problems, connected with the way out of the strained situation because of unsuccessful settlement of multiculturalism is seen in the following way:
Comparative investigations of Eurocentrism in the spheres of culture and modern multiculturalism, both in the soviet and post-soviet spaces multiculturalism can be included into the list of interesting objects of investigation.
So, multiculturalism, as an organic part of the social political history, which includes history of politics of different countries in the sphere of culture, and then, in the sphere of ethno-national and confessional relations in the society, has always been and is still remaining as one of most actual objects of scientific investigations, both in the epoch of relative stability and in periods of crisis of different characters.
Roida Rzayeva – Ph.D Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Deputy Director of the Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law
Changing Values and Multiculturalism
Multiculturalism today is characterized as ideology, policy and discourse as well, which makes the agenda on this issue of great significance. Being a discourse in itself multiculturalism can be analyzed in several discourses. One of them is a postmodernist discourse.
The ideological and political contexts of multiculturalism involve positive as well as negative attitude to multiculturalism as a phenomenon.
The negative attitude to multiculturalism is associated with the concept of “melting pot”, consisting of ethnocultural basis as dominants and various immigrant groups replaced by multiculturalism ideology in the result of that, beginning with mid-60-s. “Representatives of ethnic groups can’t be seen differently if they manage the general mood and moral values in the country”, that is on the basis of certain basic social ground ethno cultural differences are strengthened within the frame of context (the given viewpoint on the example of American society can be observed at Newsbyte in the work of “Megatrend”).
The above mentioned attitude was also expressed in the characteristics of the multiculturalist not as an open racist, when “respect of a multiculturalist for the personality of the Other is the form of confirmation of his personal superiority”.
“Postmodernism”- is one of the often used terms in the periodicals with the humanitarian trend. Phenomenon of postmodernism is in the centre of philosophical interests nowadays and, first of all, because it expresses a specific type of philosophizing for modern culture.
The project of multiculturalism involves the element of post-modernism program aimed at presuming the creation of a global community with plenty of cultures, but providing conditions for each culture to continue its existence and enjoy respect.
The peculiar interpretation of this viewpoint underlay in the basis of the theory of singularities which has become the basis of the multiculturalism conception.
The replacement of the predominant intellectual paradigm meant conversion from one cultural context to another, which is always characterized as the transformation of cultural codes and system of values.
From this point of view, Nichshe’s principle of “overestimation of values” or rejuvenation on values, appearing as a characteristic feature of postmodern, gains actuality. It is also called the valuable “syndrome of postmodernism”. This transformation is expressed in the changes of cultural, religious norms, world view at macro and micro levels, that is, at the social and personal and so on.
In the context of valuable transformations all the efforts are made in direction of constructing new culture, based on the multiculturalism concept of the society, and valuable pluralism.
Today’s sociocultural situation can be characterized as “classical” model of culture and the cult of highest patterns.
One of the mostly spread statements is that multiculturalism reflects the cultural situation of postmodern. First of all, the argumentation presents refusal from knowledge of general famous figures, which is very characteristic for modern also as the model of culture multiculturalism offers, first of all, demounting of the central vector of development, de –hierarchical and legitimating form of culture. In a whole, it may be said that multiculturalism sounds with the valuable orientation for postmodern.
The postmodernist form of multicultural discourse expresses rhetoric difference, before rhetoric of Identity, taking the first place emphasized by Derride and Deles.
Today’s situation of multiculturalism imports a dialogue, but multiculturalism is estimated as a new philosophy of interaction.
The messages of the given viewpoint can be ideas of “dialogism” from Martin Buber to Michael Bachtin, the conception “heterodox” by Emmanuel Levinas, made on the basis of “philosophy of dialogue”.
In the new cultural context the polyphony of ethnic and national cultures, subcultures at power of the different nature of events, different ways of functioning, different organization are legitimated. The policy of cultural pluralism is seen in the encouragement of “dialogue” between ethnolinguistic and ethnoconfessional groups, and also in the formation of general communicative space which is overethnic by its nature.
In this sense, “understanding of other cultural positions and possibly, oppositions as “real and incompleted problems, as “the strange truth” and consequently, exactly perceiving the truth as open and incompleted”.
Achievement of the communicative culture of the pluralistic society is seen in overcoming boarders by means of a dialogue, coming to valuable consensuses.
Setting on the dominating culture of the mainstream is rejected by the post modernist messages of accepting ambivalency as the natural thing and existence of differences that is tolerance of approach.
The regular accentuation in postmodern excludes the fact of difference and using one classification system for culture forms and their relation with total famousness.
The context of multiculturalism changes “strange” into simply “another”, intends respect to mental limits of social environment of inhabitant of each cultural unit.
The epoch of postmodern widens the sense load of multiculturalism. This idea presumes the presence of mental limits of society, within the limits which realize the interaction of socially different forms, but connected with the valuable bases of the society.
Consequently, connection of multiculturalism with postmodern corresponds to the pluralistic visions of postmodern, which, in a whole characterizes its mentality and probably sounds with its valuable orients.
Chifu Yulian – Bucharest school of political and administrative sciences
Post-modern societies and traditional religious values in the XXI
Ladies and gentlemen! Good day!
I want to thank you for all of this. After the comprehensive presentation of a national project with responding geopolitics we have seen the fact of differences between states and societies. We also heard that immigrants are not the hardest problem or the hardest issue in the world. I want to support the last speaker who talked about multiculturalism and postmodernism. So let me talk to you about realistic wonder, some aspects of multiculturalism. And the main point I want to say is the fact that modernization and globalization change to identifications of the person, both individual and group identifications. And there is a certain moral value and references which should come from big religions and comprehension of difference between religions and cultural background and humanitarian believes. The tendency of group identity is to be assumed by the central form of religion and tolerance for scientific importance in the effect.
So multiculturalism has to solve also problems as well. Some scientific researchers of multiculturalism have some interpretations of multiculturalism. In a particular moment, we can see several trends in the postmodernism which we are living in today. One of them is immigration. We are talking about the adoptability but not of the first generation, but of the second and third ones. We can see this form of radicalism inGermany, inFrance, inUSA. Not talking about the facts that have been conducted by the second and third generation professors and scientists. The second trend is the trend of conforms, conforms to either radical religions. But also it is a new form of religions coming apocalyptic and satanic. Some of these groups radicalize in the West. This process completely integrated from society. We are talking about the local citizens. We have to look it not only in the West but also we can see it in Russia. For example, we can see it in the Domodedovo. It happens more and more, the conformism of radical form of Islam in Krasnodar area, Stavropol, etc. It happens in the military West and is conducted in Afghanistan, in Iraq. Some of them, radical Islam, including terror acts, make them on the heart of USA and Europe protected military facilities. Individual identity group is needed by individuals. There is a great responsibility in choosing identity. Sociological and psychological studies reveal some patterns. This is about how to identify identities. The problem we speak is as long as religion itself. We must find other alternatives of radical Islam or understand them.
Thank you very much.
Gulchohra Seyidova – Dagestan State University (Russia)
Ideas of Multiculturalism in Contemporary Conditions: Advantages and Disadvantages
Searching’s of cultural identity and attempts for its preservation are the components of cultural development strategy and let us review prior conceptions. The end of the 20th – beginning of the 21st century is the period of the highest interests in the world community to the problem of globalism. Because of this a lot of aspects of national life are now the subject of researches in wider global concept. Attempts connected with religious revival to blame global or other forms of spirituality seem to be illusory. Modern civilization faced a great number of serious problems arisen because of religious revival in the world. This indicated that the policy of multiculturalism implemented in the West is not a universal model of policy in the field of culture. Multiculturalism combines theory and practice of nonconflictive coexistence of a large number of different cultural communities in one society. This model provides change of individual group differences policy to the policy providing recognition of rights for coexistence with other cultures in one society. The main dilemma connected with multiculturalism is not connected with the rightfulness of this statement, but with differences which are the base of the cooperation. Experience shows that communities which differed a lot by their culture, religion and language do not want to dissolve. Such communities are called “ethomarginal” ones. Members of such societies demonstrate attempts to maintain their own culture. At the same time these societies more or less adapt to the requirements of the national state. So policy of “one state, one nation” had no prospects. Bureaucratization of social and cultural life of European community on the basis of Western cultural values and rationality which was considered to be potential universal global standard was unsuccessful too. Any societies are characterized by coexistence of low-status individuals or groups which are not integrated to the social structure. This cannot but lead to the marginality of culture. Belonging to two and more cultural worlds at the same time and coexistence of a number of world pictures lead to the differences of the society and have potential risk of social tension. It is impossible with the best will in the world to reach equality of all people. We should pay attention to differences in the field of history, religion, life style of individuals and social groups entering into single social space. If we take a look at history from the point of view of multiculturalism, the latest events which have recently taken place in the most developed European countries show that the theory of globalization oriented to linear progressive understanding of global development needs to be significantly corrected and probably reconsidered. Subdivision of cultures to western and other ones including oriental cultures and priority of the rights of western cultures against other ones seems to be not competent. Conception of multiculturalism provides cultural differences which determine the main culture in everyday behavior. Practice shows that perception of a culture by its bearers differs from the way how it is estimated by foreigners. Globalization leads to the recognition of cultural diversity. Actually it is not bad. At the same time we feel increasing need for specific analysis of interaction of cultures and their preservation. Problem of revival of cultures is significantly connected with the aspect of historical and cultural heritage. A culture which determines the change of value orientation of Russian society needs to be preserved. Fortunately Russia is in quite a good position from this point of view. This country has great territories. These territories are home for a great number of different original cultures. These cultures are ancient ones. If we preserve them, Russia will have a chance to overcome the current situation. I think that Azerbaijan also has very significant positive experience in this sphere. So we should use not only the experience of western countries, but also the experience of our neighbors. In this case, I hope that global community will overcome current problems.
Konul Bunyadzadeh – Doctor of Philosophy
Identity and Relativity of the Culture in the Context of Multiculturalism in the Level of Mass Culture
“Multiculturalism”, as a term concerning a new century, has brought a new point of view with itself. First of all, let us note that the attitude to multiculturalism is not univocal. From the one hand, it is accepted as an example of tolerance and some scientific researchers make such a decision that it is possible only in highly-developed countries. For example, in Canada we can show the essence of multiculturalism, because this country is more suitable to this term and Canada is often confronted with the USA, which has “melting copper” to have a unique pattern for all the cultures.
The Principle of Tolerance was accepted as a declaration by UNESCO in 1995 to solve the conflicts between people without using strength and sanctions. One of the functions of multiculturalism is not to pay attention to the structural problem of modern society, emphasizing just the “problem of culture”. It is very interesting that there are some foreign investigators, who accept it as the changing of the problem of structure. According to the foreign investigators’ opinions, supporters of multiculturalism choose either the way of describing the social reality romantically or refusing analytical stringency characteristic to postmodernism.
First of all, there is not a principal or leading culture in the multicultural or cultural pluralist society and the notion of “ethnos” is not connected with the notion of “culture”. The notions of “my own” and “strange” lose their actuality in this society. At the same time, it is a variety of life styles, cultural currents, and inclination rather than a variety of ethnics, cultural trends. One of the important facts is not the main idea of cultural pluralism or parallel existence of different identical cultures, but having mutual relations, influence on each others and transformations. From this point of view, there is no need to speak about any dialogues between ethnos or cultures, but only the formation of the general society.
Nevertheless, a different form has appeared instead of a defined, structured and dynamic form which was called as “Rizoma” by Delyoz and Quattary, the famous authors. “Rizoma is an irregular foundation of majority, without having a main direction, and the action which cannot prognosticate the following level. The idea of “Rizoma”, which eliminates the expression of “center and edge”, the different meaning of “own and strange” also points out that the center is gradually losing its structure and this center is in both in and out of the system.
Taking into consideration, all the information mentioned above, it is not difficult to understand the reason of negative attitudes to multiculturalism. Let us show some facts concerning this matter.
It is true; some scientific researchers point out that multiculturalism belongs to highly-developed countries. Nevertheless, some certain investigations show that on the contrary, multiculturalism has not succeeded in these countries. Thus, there is information that Merkel, Sarkozy and Kameron, the leaders of Germany, France and Great Britain announced that multiculturalism has failed in their countries and multiculturalism has been the reason of weakening the national identity.
It is very interesting that Valeriy Zorkin, the chairman of Russian Constitutional Court approaches the matter in a more scientific way, and appreciates it as gaining superiority of minority over the majority and informs that multiculturalism doesn’t only turn a personality to the prisoner of identified group but also it makes minority much stronger than majority. This is one of the most serious factors of the conflict! The main importance is Vareriy Zorkin considers that “multiculturalism breaks the unique and low sphere of national country, which has been established for hundred years and it is concluded negatively”. Appreciating the matter more politically, Dr. Andrey Savalyev, the social-public figure, the chairman of the “Great Russia” Party, called multiculturalism as “the explosive which is put under the government”.
It is known that, the national consciousness of French, German and English people, their political and economical spheres, as well as their cultural identity is in such a level that they cannot put other cultures in the same ranks with theirs. “National spirit” cannot identify “own” with “strange”. Although they stand in the first place in globalization, they never forget their French or German spirit. Because only this gives them an opportunity to be in the first place and join any stream, even directing it.
Secondly, why doesn’t America, show the same tolerance? Comparing America with Europe, and analyzing Emerson’s research works about the future and progressive ideas of America, Witman says, “The aim of America is to create great, multi-tribal people for the first time in the world history in massive and different areas of the Earth-in the west, east, north and south. The People consisting of heroic statesmen, figures, women and men deserve this Name-Yes! America is living for this! The country wishing to create the united people, cannot refuse the “melting copper” for more stabilization.
At last, other side of the problem: Expression of all the above-mentioned things in the level of mass culture.First of all, let us remind that mass media was established in the middle of the XX century, after spreading mass media among the whole social spheres. Let us point out the interesting fact that Rose Luxembourg, the great German Marxist, mentioned: “Art must be comprehensive for people” in order to lower down Supreme Art to people’s level. But it was known afterwards that Luxemburg stressed that “people must understand Art”. But what does mass culture serve for today? Mass culture, which is intended for people’s daily interests, cannot be compared with Supreme Art. The High and National culture is not created by people and ethnos, but it is especially created by well-educated and intellectual strata of the society –especially writers, scientists and artists, philosophers. In other words, the intellectual and well-educated strata of the society are those who form and save the national nucleus.
Increasing informational transmission in the modern society means spreading mass culture in a wider range. Mass culture is the expression of peculiarities, which are more popular and primitive, but are not of great importance; for this reason their changing every day and becoming lost is inevitable. It means there is a nihilist spirit in mass culture. Mass culture, has become so widely-spread that films and music, which were meant for immorality of people, were conducted by external forces. Quantity is overcoming quality. Mass culture is presented as a people or even elite culture. The dangerous thing is that spreading in all the spheres, mass culture prevents people from gaining high culture on the one hand, and presents as a guiding national morality and their spiritual world on the other.
It can seem to be contradicting at the first sight. But let’s dwell on the problem: of course, only economical or political development is not enough for multiculturalism, it needs moral development: a kind of development where “national I”, is not afraid of anybody and is getting to know them, comparing himself with others, he discovers his own positive characters. This dialogue can be an example of high tolerance for everybody. Making her Mugham (folk music) famous all over the world, Azerbaijan, can host Music Festivals. Most investigators consider multiculturalism the polyphony of music. We can quote J.Rumi (the citizen of the world, and at the same time, the saver of his personality): “Azerbaijan is like compasses, one of her legs stands in her nationality, and is closely connected with her deep roots but the other one is walking around the 72 nations”. As it can be seen, two main points were mentioned here – identity and multiculturalism. The firmer her leg stands on the ground, the more exact and clearer the circle can be sketched.
Agajan Abiyev – Rector of Physical Training and Sports Academy
Dear friends, I have been listening to the reports for two days. They are very interesting and significant for people and the mankind. I would like to speak about the nature of culture and cultural values in brief. It will take us 5 or 6 minutes. God created us and at the same time He created food, water and air for all the living beings on the Earth. But he created additional food for a man, a rational being. This is culture, cultural values. They made a man to be himself. Probably it is because a man accepted culture. How? We know how to eat, how to drink, how to breathe. But what is the influence of culture? All cultural values we know – music, art, painting, theatre, cinema, architecture have the harmony. For example, music is a sum of its spectrums, frequencies, harmonies. It is the same as pictures and colors which have their own frequency and harmony and are perceived visually. So, our own brain perceives cultural values by hearing and visually according to frequency spectrums. So, in this case our brain works as spectral analyzer of these cultural values and these spectrums and harmonic need particularly for our internal organs, particularly to our organs of internal section. If a man is in healthy condition his system is ordered. If a man is ill and even medicine does not help, but only cultural values such as good music, good picture can help him. And I would like to mention that it does not depend on nationality. If a person of any nationality comes toParisand has a look at a great medieval picture or a contemporary piece of art in museum it will have good influence on him. A person of any nationality will perceive such a picture on piece of music as cultural values. So, music, art do not have the category of nationality. Culture is a universal value, it is intended for the whole humanity. This is because culture has a universal nature. It does not depend on nationality, human brain was created by God, by a single program and it is an absolutely spectral analyzer of any cultural value which can be perceived by a person. On the other hand, people try to enrich the cultural values intentionally or unintentionally. For example, if you are in an elevator and hear a magnificent piece of music there, you will listen to it. It is just like if we should breathe or not. Cultural values are perceived automatically. I think, that any nation, any people must preserve, develop and revive their national culture. But at the same time, they should conceive cultures of other nations. If a nation, any country has more cultural values, it will be only for its benefit, only for the favor of a person who lives in this country. Because of it I think that if today we speak about multiculturalism in this aspect , we should develop this field and make all attempts for culture to enter all the houses, all the nations, and all the countries in the world.
Ilham Mammadzada- professor. Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences Head of the Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law
Multiculturalism as the challenge of the globalization age
Multiculturalism – a concept, actively used in media of late, became central for most of scientific researches. Basically, it’s a theory, practice, history and, at last, a policy. The nerve of this concept is disclosed, when on the one hand, different identities are involved in any specific national identity’s formation, that national culture is always a historical result, composition of different cultures, but, on the other hand, the modern world is multicultural, and it can not be reduced to one culture. The relevance of this concept increases in the context of globalization to such an extent, that now the entire world faces a dilemma: multiculturalism, or archaism and a clash of Civilizations (S. Huntington).
It’s clear, that the relevance of this concept preconditions the need of its research. In Azerbaijan the problems of multiculturalism are in the centre of attention of philosophers, culture specialists, political scientists, etc. The understanding of topicality of whole the problems of multiculturalism are to some extent explained to us by the fact that we faced the exigencies of its public relations in the late 80s, when the ethnic conflicts of that times’Soviet Unionshowed, that all is not well with international relations, and that internationalism is not enough for their solution. At the same time it became obvious, that international relations are not reduced only to vertical relationship, that social consciousness introduces its own understanding of process of international relationship development.
Since then we, in our Academy of Sciences, have been looking forward to examine these problems in a varying degree and have gained experience, which, we believe, may be interesting for our colleges from other countries. So, there are a lot of publications on the themes of multiculturalism and its role in the development of national culture, dialogue of cultures. I would like to note, that our philosophers regularly do researches, hold conferences with Russian colleges from the Institute of Philosophy of Russian Academy, devoted to understanding the issues of multiculturalism, interaction of cultures, etc.
We must admit, that the research of multiculturalism requires, first of all, an integrated multidisciplinary approach. And the matter is not only in this, that it (multiculturalism) has political, international, economic, legal, ethical and other aspects, but also, that any cultural problem has inter- and overdisciplinary nature. Secondly, this approach to everything, related to multiculturalism, makes philosophers to reunderstand the philosophy’s supertask in the modern world, reunderstand what is national identity, the reason of identity’s variability, which levels of identity exist etc. Thirdly, the philosophical aspect of this questions’ research does not eliminate the relevance of the ideological context, education of the young generation to respect the citizens of other cultures. Fourthly, in the context of our thinking about multiculturalism I would like to pay attention to the fact, that there are many results in multiculturalism apprehension in western philosophy and we, Azerbaijani Social Scientists, should comprehend them. First of all, it is the philosophy of the second half of the 20th century; it is J. Habermas and his discourse, related to national state and modern, and M. Foucault, who, exploring the issues of the French nation’s formation, substantiated the importance of other cultures in the French culture. Thus, it is interesting, that in the history the French and the Germans was ethnically a single ethnos, which gave an impulse to the formation of several national cultures, so in the end of XIX century the French recognized the Jews as the citizen of France, etc. In other words, the problem of forming a national identity includes the process of changing in understanding of those, who belong to one or another nation; that the concepts of ethnos and nation vary; that citizenship is not only political and legal concept, but it also includes cultural, religious, ethnic differences, etc. Fifthly, the processes of globalization introduced the new shades in the processes of interaction between cultures and, at the same time, exacerbated them. Let’s recall to the fact that F. Fukuyama thought that democracy will lead to “the end of the history”, that the period of ideological collisions will end. In practice the ideological collisions and the interstate conflicts engulfed the entire world. It’s not without reason that we speak about the new imperialism and new nationalism, the French are dissatisfied with the French of Arab origin,Russia is dissatisfied with the “Caucasians”, and even Armenia tends to save the “purity of their culture and blood” at any cost.
Sixthly, the need of interdisciplinary research of multiculturalism involves consideration of two important points: specific sociological researches are needed, statistics, which are supplied by ethnoculturology and ethnopolitology, but specific data, in turn, determine the specificity of a philosophical approach, which only allows to explore the content of the concepts (new metaphysics). In this context it is appropriate to recall the hermeneutic function of philosophy. In this case the comparative analysis is not confined to only comparison of data, because it is important to compare on the basis of how multiculturalism is understood in different countries and cultures, becomes a reality, etc.
Seventhly, in order to understand the specifics of modern multiculturalism, its possible development trends and reactions to it in the mass consciousness of globalization, it’s important to introduce it as three simultaneous processes: differentiation and localization of culture (therefore in all cultures the important thing is called identity), and as alternative to this the integration of cultures is gaining speed, which penetrates in all the spheres, even in those, which are related with traditional nature and innermost. And, at last, the hierarchy in different cultures with different speed is disturbed with religiousness, ethnicity and individuality. Society can only respond to these processes in mass consciousness, but for this, for their research, the modern social science, recommendations of experts and management decisions are needed.
Eighthly, multiculturalism – is, of course, a dialogue of cultures, but it goes inside the society, between cultures and subcultures. This difference is not understood by everybody. Azerbaijan has a tradition to perceive the culture, which absorbs different subcultures. Because of this the relation to multiculturalism in mass consciousness might be basically positive. But there is some distrust to the relation of other communities to us. It’s obvious that a deeper knowledge of modern information technology causes expansion of, what is called, “mosaic consciousness”, when universal is more often side by side with what is called the Archaic, the past, etc.
Ninthly, more and more sociologists fix that some identities are found in one and the same man: civic, religious, professional, sexual, etc. Each of them, at a particular moment in time, can be perceived as the main, dominating, but then it can be changed by another one. This fact can be fixed, for instance, if we refer to the behavior of Diasporas research. There are a lot of sociological researches, which show us that concepts are used in Diasporas ethnicity, nationality, religious ethnicity, spiritual Diaspora, etc.
And, at last, we should emphasize that multiculturalism is needed in empiricism, in theory and in philosophy. The Philosophy of multiculturalism should conceptually aim to the assertion of rationality in the culture, in people’s minds, maintain the ideals of humanism, comparing and expanding its understanding in different cultures. Philosophy must therefore act as a metalanguage, which connects data from multiple practices.
The text of verbatim report was provided by Baky Slavic University.